• Jonathan GrixEmail author
  • Paul Michael Brannagan
  • Donna Lee
Part of the Mega Event Planning book series (MEGAEP)


This final chapter summarises the key points of the five soft power strategies undertaken by Brazil, China, Russia, South Africa and Qatar. We revisit each soft power resource in turn: culture, tourism, branding, diplomacy and trade. Further, we discuss whether it is possible to discern a specific soft power strategy related to emerging states. The following three key themes are discussed: first, the idea that soft power strategies may be international, regional or domestic in nature and emphasis; some states will seek to use the SME to impact all, while others focus on one or two of these areas. Second, we highlight the notion of SMEs as a driver for ‘development’ and what form this takes. Third and finally, the soft power concept is revisited in the light of our study and critiqued, although it is maintained that soft power continues to be useful to shed light on efforts to marshal non-coercive resources for the benefit of states.


Soft power package Emerging states’ soft power strategy Domestic, regional and international soft power 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan Grix
    • 1
    Email author
  • Paul Michael Brannagan
    • 1
  • Donna Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Business and Law FacultyManchester Metropolitan UniversityManchesterUK

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