China’s Coming Out Party? The Beijing Olympics, 2008
- 218 Downloads
There is little doubt that China is becoming one of the most powerful countries in the world, in both economic and political terms. The Beijing Olympics in 2008 arguably acted as an extra impetus to the inexorable rise of China. Since then, China has been feted in the UK, playing a leading role in developing the UK’s nuclear power station at Hinkley Point, has begun creating the £900 billion ‘One Belt, One Road’ economic development initiative and has won the right to host the 2022 Winter Olympics. Sport is just one area that China seeks to become more dominant, including building a domestic sports industry worth $850 billion, investing heavily in reforming its own football league to make it world-class and equally heavily in European football clubs. Sport policy clearly falls into line with China’s global economic, political and even cultural aspirations.
KeywordsOlympic Games Ping-pong diplomacy Investment in sport
- BBC. (2015 October 20). Xi Jinping Visit: UK-China Ties ‘Will Be Lifted to New Height’ [online]. Retrieved July 20, 2018, from https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-34571436.
- Brownwell, S. (2008). Beijing’s Games. What the Olympics Mean to China. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
- Chen, S., Preuss, H., Hu, X., Kenyon, J., & Liang, X. (2018). Domestic Sport Policy Development in China: Legacies of Beijing 2008 Summer Olympic Games and 2022 Winter Olympic Games. Working Paper.Google Scholar
- CIA World Factbook. (2018). China [online]. Retrieved April 24, 2018, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sf.html.
- Council on Foreign Relations (CFR). (2018, February 9). China’s Big Bet on Soft Power. Retrieved July 20, 2018, from https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/chinas-big-bet-soft-power.
- Council on Foreign Relations (CFR). (2018, March 2). Will South Korea’s Olympic Diplomacy Last? Retrieved October 19, 2018, from https://www.cfr.org/expert-brief/will-south-koreas-olympic-diplomacy-last.
- Cull, N. J. (2008). The Public Diplomacy of the Modern Olympic Games and China’s Soft Power Strategy. In M. E. Price & D. Dayan (Eds.), Owning the Olympics: Narratives of the New China (pp. 117–144). Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
- Dennis, M., & Grix, J. (2012). Sport under Communism: Behind the East German ‘Miracle’. Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- The Diplomat. (2016, June 14). Chinese Firms Buy Up Global Sporting Icons. Retrieved August 1, 2018, from https://thediplomat.com/2016/06/chinese-firms-buy-up-global-sporting-icons/.
- The Diplomat. (2017) As Somali Pirates Return, Chinese Navy Boasts of Anti-Piracy Operations. Retrieved July 20, 2018, from https://thediplomat.com/2017/04/as-somali-pirates-return-chinese-navy-boasts-of-anti-piracy-operations/.
- The Economist. (2011, November 17). The Brazilian Model. The Economist. Retrieved July 15, 2013, from http://www.economist.com/node/21537004.
- European Tour Operators Association (ETOA). (2009). Beijing Update. Retrieved July 19, 2018, from https://www.etoa.org/docs/default-source/Reports/ETOA-reports/2009-etoa-olympic-report-beijing-update.pdf?sfvrsn=2.
- Financial Times. (2018, May 4). How China’s Football Investors Are Staying Positive Amid Government Crackdown [online]. Retrieved July 19, 2018, from https://www.ft.com/content/a5548adc-43fd-11e8-97ce-ea0c2bf34a0b.
- The Guardian. (2011, December 8). Chinese State TV Unveils Global Expansion Plan. Retrieved July 24, 2018, from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/dec/08/china-state-television-global-expansion.
- The Guardian. (2017, December 21). Hinkley Point: The ‘Dreadful Deal’ Behind the World’s Most Expensive Power Plant. Retrieved July 20, 2018, from https://www.theguardian.com/news/2017/dec/21/hinkley-point-c-dreadful-deal-behind-worlds-most-expensive-power-plant.
- The Guardian. (2018, November 13). China’s Mass Incarceration of Muslims Cannot Be Left Unchallenged. Retrieved May 25, 2019, from https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/nov/13/china-mass-incarceration-muslims-unchallenged-uighur.
- Hong, F. (2008). China. In B. Houlihan & M. Green (Eds.), Comparative Elite Sport Development: Systems, Structures and Public Policy. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
- Hong, F., & Zhouxiang, L. (2011). China. In M. Nicholson, R. Hoye, & B. Houlihan (Eds.), Participation in Sport: International Policy Perspectives. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
- The Independent. (2018). Chinese Police to Use Facial Recognition Technology to Send Jaywalkers Instant Fines by Text. Retrieved May 25, 2019, from https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/china-police-facial-recognition-technology-ai-jaywalkersfines-text-wechat-weibo-cctv-a8279531.html.
- IOC. (2009). Factsheet. Beijing Fact and Figures. Update August 2009. Retrieved July 20, 2018, from https://www.olympic.org/olympic-legacy/~/media/A8264DD681D34B459B026CBD6FFD4D78.ashx.
- Kennedy, S., & Johnson, C. (2016). Perfecting China, Inc. Washington, DC: Centre for Strategic and International Studies.Google Scholar
- New York Times. (2001, July 14). Beijing Wins Bid for 2008 Olympic Games [online]. Retrieved April 21, 2016, from http://www.nytimes.com/2001/07/14/sports/olympics-beijing-wins-bid-for-2008-olympic-games.html?pagewanted=all.
- Pew Global Attitudes Survey. (2017). Globally, More Name U.S. than China as World’s Leading Economic Power. Retrieved July 23, 2018, from http://www.pewglobal.org/2017/07/13/more-name-u-s-than-china-as-worlds-leading-economic-power/.
- Politico. (2018). China’s Soft Power Offensive. Beijing’s Confucius Institutes Are Part of Its Plan to Become a Top World Power. Retrieved July 20, 2018, from https://www.politico.eu/article/china-soft-power-offensive-confucius-institute-education/.
- Reuters. (2010, December 3). Russia, Qatar Take World Cup to New Lands. Retrieved June 20, 2012, from http://in.reuters.com/article/2010/12/02/idINIndia-53307220101202.
- Riordan, J. (1980). Sport in Soviet Society: Development of Sport and Physical Education in Russia and the USSR (Vol. 22). CUP Archive.Google Scholar
- Smith, A., & Skinner, J. (2017). Why Do the Chinese Invest in European Football? Retrieved July 20, 2018, from https://www.globalsportsjobs.com/article/why-the-chinese-invest-in-european-football-/.
- Time Online. (2017, October 12). Why the Fight with North Korea Is Really About China. Retrieved July 20, 2018, from http://time.com/4979613/north-korea-donald-trump-china/.
- Wall Street Journal. (2008). China Counts the Cost of Hosting the Olympics; July. Retrieved May 28, 2019, from https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB121614671139755287.
- Wildau, G., & Mitchell, T. (2016, January 14). China Income Inequality Among World’s Worst. Financial Times [online]. Retrieved April 24, 2018, from https://www.ft.com/content/3c521faa-baa6-11e5-a7cc-280dfe875e28.
- The World Bank. (2016). GDP Per Capita, PPP [online]. Retrieved April 24, 2018, from https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.PP.CD?view=chart.
- The World Bank. (2017). GINI Index (World Bank Estimate) [online]. Retrieved April 24, 2018, from https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.GINI.
- The World Bank. (2018). International Tourism, Number of Arrivals. Retrieved July 24, 2018, from https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ST.INT.ARVL.
- World Economic Forum. (2017). China’s $900 billion New Silk Road. What You Need to Know. Retrieved July 24, 2018, from https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/06/china-new-silk-road-explainer/.
- Zhang, J. (2015, November 3). Xi Expounds on Guideline for 13th Five-year Plan. CCTV [China Central Television] English [online]. Retrieved April 25, 2018, from http://english.cntv.cn/2015/11/03/ARTI1446559744633822.shtml.