Sports Mega-Events and the Concept of Soft Power
- 295 Downloads
‘Soft power’ is becoming a very popular term used by academics, politicians, journalists and commercial organisations. Its widespread use has added to its lack of clarity and obfuscated its meaning. Combining it with sports mega-events—large-scale sporting spectacles—has added to the confusion. This chapter sets about explaining both sports mega-events and the concept of soft power. Moreover, we show how the latter can be used to understand the former through the development of an ideal type of a state’s soft power package. Such a package consists of five interlinked dimensions: culture, tourism, branding, diplomacy and trade. This—the first attempt to develop a heuristic to assess a state’s soft power package—enables us to understand the mechanisms at work behind states’ attempts at pursuing policies to promote their interests.
KeywordsSports mega-events Soft power Soft power package
- Bason, T. (2019). Every Loser Wins: Leveraging the Olympic Bid. Unpublished PhD thesis, Manchester Metropolitan University.Google Scholar
- BBC. (2016, October 2). Theresa May’s Conservative Conference Speech: Key Quotes [online]. Retrieved January 6, 2017, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-37535527.
- Cull, N. J. (2008). The Public Diplomacy of the Modern Olympic Games and China’s Soft Power Strategy. In M. E. Price & D. Dayan (Eds.), Owning the Olympics: Narratives of the New China (pp. 117–144). Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
- Durkheim, E. (1912/1995) The Elementary Forms of Religious Life, trans. K.E. Fields, New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
- Ernst and Young. (2012). Rapid-Growth Markets Soft Power Index. Retrieved July 19, 2018, from https://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/Rapid-growth_markets:_Soft_power_index/$FILE/Rapid-growth_markets-Soft_Power_Index-Spring_2012.pdf.
- Giulianotti, R. (2015). Sport: A Critical Sociology (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
- Grix, J., Giulianotti, R., & Brannagan, P. M. (2019). Re-Thinking ‘Soft Power’ for the 21st Century. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
- Hocking, B., Melissen, J., Riordan, S., & Sharp, P. (2012). Futures for Diplomacy-Integrative Diplomacy in the 21st Century. The Hague: Netherlands Institute of International Relations ‘Clingendael’.Google Scholar
- Ikenberry, G. J., & Slaughter, A. M. (2006). Forging a World of Liberty Under Law (p. 17). US National Security in the 21st Century.Google Scholar
- Matheson, V. (2009). Economic Multipliers and Mega-event Analysis. International Journal of Sport Finance, 4, 63–70.Google Scholar
- Mesure, S. (2014, August 17). Move Over, Psy! Here Comes G-Dragon Style. The Independent. Retrieved July 13, 2015, from http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/music/news/move-over-psy-here-comes-gdragon-style-9673768.html.
- Monocle ‘Soft Power Survey’. (2018). Monocle. Retrieved July 19, 2018, from http://monocle.com/search/soft-power.
- Nye, J. (1990). Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Perlez, J. (2014, November 30). Leader Asserts China’s Growing Importance on Global Stage. The New York Times. Retrieved July 17, 2015, from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/01/world/asia/leader-asserts-chinas-growing-role-on-global-stage.html?_r=0.
- Portland Communications. (2018). The Soft Power 30. Retrieved July 19, 2018, from http://softpower30.portland-communications.com/.
- Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital. In Culture and Politics (pp. 223–234). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Slaughter, A.-M. (2005). Governing the Global Economy Through Government Networks. In F. V. Kratochwil & E. D. Mansfield (Eds.), International Organization and Global Governance: A Reader (pp. 124–140). New York: Pearson/Longman.Google Scholar
- Snow, N., & Taylor, P. M. (Eds.). (2008). Routledge Handbook of Public Diplomacy. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Szondi, G. (2008). Public Diplomacy and Nation Branding: Conceptual Similarities and Differences. The Hague: Netherlands Institute of International Relations ‘Clingendael’.Google Scholar
- Turner, V. (1969). Liminality and Communitas. The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-structure, 94, 130.Google Scholar
- Umekawa, T. (2015, March 12). Japan Budgets Over $15 million for Overseas Universities in Soft Power Push. Reuters. Retrieved July 14, 2015, from http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/03/13/us-japan-diplomacy-idUSKBN0M905M20150313.
- Vuving, A. L. (2009, September 3). How Soft Power Works. Paper presented at American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, Toronto, ON, Canada. Retrieved from http://www.apcss.org/Publications/Vuving%20How%20soft%20power%20works%20APSA%202009.pdf.