The world has always been concerned with its future. That concern has become endemic in this era. Global climate change is a new term introduced in our generation. As Pogo famously said, “we have found the enemy, and it is us.” Unfortunately, the almost miracle accomplished by ruminant animals in converting lignified materials into healthful, delicious foods also requires the production of methane and other by-products that have been condemned as contributors to global climate change. Therefore, an important extrinsic character of red meat in many markets is how much damage to the environment and to our collective future on the planet did the production of the red meat contribute. This chapter presents a review of the scientific literature concerning the science underlying ruminal fermentation and the consequences of fermentation on the environment as well as discovery of technologies to ameliorate these consequences.
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