The Past, Present, and Future of SNEP

Part of the Advances in Japanese Business and Economics book series (AJBE, volume 23)


  1. 1.

    The online survey supported the notion that SNEP often do not have friends or acquaintances whom they see regularly and can talk to about problems. Many SNEP refrain from leaving home, even at night.

  2. 2.

    Many individual-type SNEP wake up late and neglect housework. The segment also has a significant percentage of people who refrain from seeking medical attention, despite being mentally unstable, ill, or injured. Generally, individual-type SNEP pursue few hobbies, have few interests, and show relatively little interest in getting married.

  3. 3.

    Whereas a considerable number of individual-type SNEP have worked as regular employees, many family-type SNEP have never been employed.

  4. 4.

    The SNEP population, as a whole, tends to have lacked good friends or relationships with trusted adults during their junior high school years.

  5. 5.

    Overall, SNEP have insufficient savings or assets, leading many to be strongly concerned about their future.

  6. 6.

    There is a sizable contingent of individual-type SNEP who are open to the idea of receiving welfare if the circumstances demand it; in fact, some of the people in this segment are already on welfare.



  1. Genda, Y. (2013b). Koritsu Mugyo (SNEP). Tokyo: Nikkei Publishing Inc..Google Scholar
  2. Genda, Y., Kondo, A., & Ohta, S. (2010). Long-term effects of a recession at labor market entry in Japan and the United States. Journal of Human Resources, 45(1), 157–196.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Social ScienceThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan

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