The Determinants and Characteristics of SNEP

Part of the Advances in Japanese Business and Economics book series (AJBE, volume 23)


  1. 1.

    In the past, the attributes that increased the likelihood of someone’s becoming SNEP included being a middle-aged (30 years and older) male, a high school dropout, or having completed only junior high school.

  2. 2.

    However, since the 2000s, a rise has begun to be seen among SNEP from the 20–29 age and university graduate groups, making the isolation of young and educated non-employed persons a more serious problem. Furthermore, in the 2010s, the 30–39 and 40–49 age non-employed groups, which included the “employment ice age” generation, were more likely to become SNEP.

  3. 3.

    Surprisingly, the data showed that people who did not spend any time in medical treatment or care were more likely to become SNEP.

  4. 4.

    Geographic characteristics, such as residential area population, and annual household income did not have any particular bearing on the likelihood of a non-employed person becoming solitary.

  5. 5.

    Living with a family member who required long-term care made it more difficult for individuals to interact with people outside the home, thereby contributing to solitary non-employment, especially before the introduction of the Long-Term Care Insurance System.

  6. 6.

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, the “generalization of isolation” has continued to spread. Now, being non-employed increases an individual’s risk of becoming isolated, regardless of gender, age, education, region, or family background.



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  3. Genda, Y., Kondo, A., & Ohta, S. (2010). Long-term effects of a recession at labor market entry in Japan and the United States. Journal of Human Resources, 45(1), 157–196.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Social ScienceThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan

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