Statistical Optimisation of Nano-Zinc Oxide-Based Fire-Protective Finish on Jute Fabric

Conference paper


Emulsified mixture of nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO) and poly-hydroxymethyl amino silicone (PHAMS) is padded on bleached jute fabric followed by drying and curing to develop fire-retardant finish on jute-based fabrics. After a preliminary study made and based on those results, the present study concentrates on statistical optimisation of two input variables such as concentrations of nano-ZnO and PHAMS applied on jute fabric by using response surface methodology (RSM) with user-defined quadratic model (UDQM) for determining optimum concentrations of said two input variables. Resultant variables considered for such optimisation are LOI, char Length, loss in fabric tenacity. Preliminary study shows that application of mixture of nano-ZnO particles (0.01% w/w) with PHAMS (10% w/w) on jute fabrics renders reasonable fire-retardant performance in terms of LOI value and char length. While after statistical optimisation, with UDQM experimental design method, optimum concentrations of nano-ZnO and PHAMS are determined to be 0.007 and 13.7%, respectively, which finally results LOI: 37.71, char length: 44.01 mm or 4.4 cm and loss in fabric Tenacity 17.35% with reasonable good wash fastness up to five cycles of washing. Nano-ZnO particle so produced is characterised in our earlier publication. In this part, presence of nano-ZnO and its particle size on the surface of treated jute fabrics are proven by IR spectra (FTIR), pXRD/EXD, SEM and analysis of particle size distribution. Thus, nano-ZnO finish with PHAMS renders acceptable level of fire-protective finish of jute fabrics at the said optimum concentrations.


Critical oxygen index (LOI) Fire-protective finish Jute Length of char Poly-hydroxymethyl amino silicone (PHAMS) ZnO-nanoparticle (ZnO-NP) 



The authors are grateful to Govt of India Ministry of Textiles, and Office of the Jute Commissioner, Govt of India for required financial support in the form of R & D Project grant-in-aid for the project entitled ‘Standardization of Fire Retardant Finish for Jute Fabrics’ provided to this Department of University of Calcutta (DJFT, IJT, CU) vide Ref Sanction letter no-nil dt 08-03-2016 from MOT, GOI.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Jute and Fibre Technology, Institute of Jute TechnologyUniversity of CalcuttaKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Chemical Engineering DepartmentJadavpur UniversityKolkataIndia

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