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ABC Family Transporters

  • Xiaodong LiuEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1141)

Abstract

The transport of specific molecules across lipid membranes is an essential function of all living organisms. The processes are usually mediated by specific transporters. One of the largest transporter families is the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family. More than 40 ABC transporters have been identified in human, which are divided into 7 subfamilies (ABCA to ABCG) based on their gene structure, amino acid sequence, domain organization, and phylogenetic analysis. Of them, at least 11 ABC transporters including P-glycoprotein (P-GP/ABCB1), multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs/ABCCs), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) are involved in multidrug resistance (MDR) development. These ABC transporters are expressed in various tissues such as the liver, intestine, kidney, and brain, playing important roles in absorption, distribution, and excretion of drugs. Some ABC transporters are also involved in diverse cellular processes such as maintenance of osmotic homeostasis, antigen processing, cell division, immunity, cholesterol, and lipid trafficking. Several human diseases such as cystic fibrosis, sitosterolemia, Tangier disease, intrahepatic cholestasis, and retinal degeneration are associated with mutations in corresponding transporters. This chapter will describe function and expression of several ABC transporters (such as P-GP, BCRP, and MRPs), their substrates and inhibitors, as well as their clinical significance.

Keywords

Multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein Breast cancer resistance protein Multidrug resistance-associated proteins ABC gene-related disease 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The project was in part supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81872930; 81573490) and “Double First-Class” University project (No. CPU2018GY22).

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.China Pharmaceutical UniversityNanjingChina

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