• Ichiro Horide
Part of the Advances in Japanese Business and Economics book series (AJBE, volume 20)


The purpose of this work is to research and demonstrate, using evidence from contemporary documents, that the early modern Japanese merchant class in the Edo period Japan (1603–1868) held to a remarkable but little-examined ethical code roughly comparable to the well-known Way of the Warrior, or Bushido. Evidence demonstrates that many and perhaps most merchants—who were deeply despised and roundly devastated as unethical by Japan’s ruling samurai class—in practice acted in accordance with strict moral standards.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ichiro Horide
    • 1
  1. 1.Reitaku UniversityKashiwaJapan

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