Immune Responses of Mammals and Plants to Chitin-Containing Pathogens

  • Xi Jiang
  • Han Bao
  • Hans Merzendorfer
  • Qing YangEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1142)


Chitin-containing organisms, such as fungi and arthropods, use chitin as a structural component to protect themselves from harsh environmental conditions. Hosts such as mammals and plants, however, sense chitin to initiate innate and adaptive immunity and exclude chitin-containing organisms. A number of protein factors are then expressed, and several signaling pathways are triggered. In this chapter, we focus on the responses and signal transduction pathways that are activated in mammals and plants upon invasion by chitin-containing organisms. As host chitinases play important roles in the glycolytic processing of chitin, which is then recognized by pattern-recognition receptors, we also pay special attention to the chitinases that are involved in immune recognition.


Human chitinase Chitin Pattern-recognition receptors Plant signal transduction pathways 



Arginase 1


chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2


cluster of differentiation 11


chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8




elongation factor thermo unstable


fibrinogen C domain containing 1


found in inflammatory zone 1


flagelin 22


house dust mite






leucine-rich repeat


leukotriene D4


mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1


mitogen-activated protein kinase


mitogen-activated protein kinase 3


myeloid differentiation factor 88


alternatively activated macrophages


β-1,4-linked oligosaccharide of GlcNAc with a polymerization degree of n


nuclear magnetic resonance


nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2


pathogen-associated molecular patterns


prostaglandin D2


pattern-recognition receptors


receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase


reactive oxygen species


toll-like receptor


tumor necrosis factor


thymic stromal lymphopoietin


transcription factor with a ~60-residue DNA-binding domain containing a highly conserved heptapeptide motif WRKYGQK


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xi Jiang
    • 1
  • Han Bao
    • 1
  • Hans Merzendorfer
    • 2
  • Qing Yang
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.School of BioengineeringDalian University of TechnologyDalianChina
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and Biology – Molecular BiologyUniversity of SiegenSiegenGermany
  3. 3.State Laboratory of Biology for Plant Diseases and Insect PestsInstitute of Plant Protection at Chinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingChina

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