The Effects of Awareness Level on Littering Behaviour on Campus: Family Income as Moderator

  • Mas’udah AsmuiEmail author
  • Sharifah Norhuda Syed Wahid
  • Suhanom Mohd Zaki
  • Noorsuraya Mohd Mokhtar
  • Siti Suhaila Harith
Conference paper


Previous studies have revealed that students’ awareness on environmental issues is high. In contrast, their positive behaviour towards littering is increasing along some factors, explicitly; facility, campaign, and socio-demographic that were studied with regard to littering awareness level. The socio-demographic variables namely gender, age and religion are literally high related to littering behaviour compared to family income. The objectives of the study are two-folds: first, to ascertain the effects of awareness level on littering behaviour on campus. The second objective is to identify the role of family income as a moderator in the relationship between students’ awareness on littering and their littering behaviour. Questionnaires were distributed among students at a selected higher learning institution and the research hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modelling. The findings of the study reveal that there is a significant relationship between the students’ awareness and littering behaviour on campus. Besides that, family income partially moderates the relationship between the two variables.


Awareness level Littering behaviour Family income 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mas’udah Asmui
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sharifah Norhuda Syed Wahid
    • 1
  • Suhanom Mohd Zaki
    • 1
  • Noorsuraya Mohd Mokhtar
    • 1
  • Siti Suhaila Harith
    • 1
  1. 1.Universiti Teknologi MARA, UiTM Cawangan PahangBandar JengkaMalaysia

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