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Secondary Metabolites from Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.): Structure, Biochemistry and Therapeutic Implications Against Neurodegenerative Diseases

Chapter

Abstract

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), the representative of Lamiaceae family is known for its various medicinal uses that are accompanied by their hallmark secondary metabolites, i.e., carnosol, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid (mostly the polyphenolic diterpenes). In the age of medicines and methodologies, when we are floating through the advancements and achievements, we are being hijacked by various diseases leading to increased number of young deaths. Neurological disorders are one of them and characterized by any impairment in the nervous system, brain or spinal cord. The majority of young and aged people around the globe are manifested by neurological disorders, i.e., stroke, epilepsy, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD) and migraine. A large number of therapeutic approaches mend the symptoms in early stages of these disorders, but with the span of time, patients become progressively more disabled as they may suffer from drug-associated adverse effects. Emphasizing on the urgent need of alternative therapeutic regimens, natural products are encouraged worldwide in terms of safety and to minimize the aforesaid loss. In this order, the current chapter summarizes the protective role of R. officinalis L. and its bio-active metabolites against various neurological disorders via targeting amyloid-beta (A-β) aggregation, neuronal cell death, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), neuroinflammation, β-secretase (BACE-1) activity, mitochondrial redox status, etc. Based on the multifunctional nature due to effective bio-active secondary metabolites, R. officinalis can be a terrific alternative therapeutic source against many neurodegenerative diseases.

Keywords

Secondary metabolites Essential oils Neurological disorders Molecular markers 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are highly indebted to Prof. S. W. Akhtar, chancellor, for providing us the state-of the-art research laboratory.

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IIRC-5, Clinical Biochemistry and Natural Product Research Lab, Department of BiosciencesIntegral UniversityLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of BiosciencesJamia Millia Islamia UniversityNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Medical Laboratory SciencesCollege of Applied medical Sciences, Majmaah UniversityAl-MajmaahSaudi Arabia

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