• Atul Bhargava
  • Shilpi Srivastava


Vegetables have been part of the human diet from time immemorial with their usage starting before the advent of agriculture. They are a rich source of vitamins, minerals, trace elements and dietary fiber, and therefore play an important role in human nutrition. Consumption of vegetables provides taste, palatability, increases appetite, and prevents constipation by providing roughages which help in movement of food in the intestine. It has been observed that vegetable consumption reduces the risk of cancer by 15%, cardiovascular disease by 30%, and mortality by 20% which is attributed to the presence of antioxidants like ascorbic acid, vitamin E, carotenoids, lycopenes, polyphenols, and other phytochemicals. A diet rich of vegetables protects human beings from the risk of most common epithelial cancers, several non-digestive neoplasms, and oral, pharyngeal, colorectal, esophageal, and breast cancers. Participatory plant breeding has been used for a number of vegetables ranging from leafy vegetables like amaranth and broccoli to tuber crops like onion and taro. The chapter discusses the various approaches of PPB followed by vegetable crops in different parts of the world.


  1. Adeniji OT, Aloyce A (2012a) Farmer’s knowledge of horticultural traits and participatory selection of African eggplant varieties (Solanum aethiopicum) in Tanzania. Tropicultura 30:185–191Google Scholar
  2. Adeniji OT, Aloyce A (2012b) Farmers’ participatory identification of horticultural traits: developing breeding objectives for vegetable amaranth in Tanzania. J Crop Improv 27:309–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adeniji OT, Swai I, Oluoch MO, Tanyongana R, Aloyce A (2010) Evaluation of head yield and participatory selection of horticultural characters in cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata). J Plant Breed Crop Sci 2:243–250Google Scholar
  4. Aggarwal A, Mehrotra RS (1987) Control of Phytophthora leaf blight of taro (Colocasia esculenta) by fungicides and roguing. Phytoparasitica 15:299–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alcantara RM, Hurtada WA, Dizon EI (2013) The nutritional value and phytochemical components of Taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] powder and its selected processed foods. J Nutr Food Sci 3:207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III (2009) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Bot J Linn Soc 161:105–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arab L, Steck S (2000) Lycopene and cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr 71:1691S–1695SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bai Y, Lindhout P (2007) Domestication and breeding of tomatoes: what have we gained and what can we gain in the future? Ann Bot 100:1085–1094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baral M, Datta A, Chakraborty S, Chakraborty P (2011) Pharmacognostic studies on stem and leaves of Amaranthus spinosus linn. Int J Appl Biol Pharm 2:41–47Google Scholar
  10. Bhargava A, Shukla S, Chatterjee A, Singh SP (2004) Selection response in vegetable amaranth (A. tricolor) for different foliage cuttings. J Appl Hortic 6:43–44Google Scholar
  11. Brooks FE (2008) Detached-leaf bioassay for evaluating taro resistance to Phytophthora colocasiae. Plant Dis 92:126–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Campanelli G, Acciarri N, Campion B, Delvecchio S, Leteo F, Fusari F, Angelini P, Ceccarelli S (2015) Participatory tomato breeding for organic conditions in Italy. Euphytica 204:179–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chable V, Conseil M, Serpolay E, Le Lagadec F (2008) Organic varieties for cauliflowers and cabbages in Brittany: from genetic resources to participatory plant breeding. Euphytica 164:521–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chaïr H, Traore RE, Duval MF, Rivallan R, Mukherjee A, Aboagye LM, Van Rensburg WJ, Andrianavalona V, de Carvalho MAA P, Saborio F, Sri Prana M, Komolong B, Lawac F, Lebot V (2016) Genetic diversification and dispersal of Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott). PLoS One 11:e0157712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cramer CS (2000) Breeding and genetics of Fusarium basal rot resistance in onion. Euphytica 115:159–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Das AB, Das A, Pradhan C, Naskar SK (2015) Genotypic variations of ten Indian cultivars of Colocasia esculenta var. antiquorom Schott. evident by chromosomal and RAPD markers. Caryologia 68:44–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Daunay MC, Lester RN, Ano G (2001) Cultivated eggplants. In: Charrirer A, Jacquot M, Hamon S, Nicholas D (eds) Tropical plant breeding. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 200–225Google Scholar
  18. de Carvalho CA, Fernandes KM, SLP M, da Silva MB, da Oliveira LL, Fonseca CC (2011) Evaluation of antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage) on wistar rat gastric ulceration. Arq Gastroenterol 48:276–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fahey JW, Zhang Y, Talalay P (1997) Broccoli sprouts: an exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:10367–10372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fayos O, Vallés MP, Garcés-Claver A, Mallor C, Castillo AM (2015) Doubled haploid production from Spanish onion (Allium cepa L.) germplasm: embryogenesis induction, plant regeneration and chromosome doubling. Front Plant Sci 6:384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Friedman M (2002) Tomato glycoalkaloids: role in the plant and in the diet. J Agric Food Chem 50:5751–5780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Giles WF (1941) Cauliflower and broccoli. What they are and where they come from? J R Hortic Soc 66:265–278Google Scholar
  23. Gray AR (1989) Taxonomy and evolution of broccolis and cauliflowers. Baileya 23:28–46Google Scholar
  24. Hervé Y, Lunn T, Mabeau S (1998) An introduction to vegetable crop production and plant breeding in Brittany. Acta Hortic 459:31–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hunter DG, Iosefa T, Delp CJ, Fonoti P (2001) Beyond taro leaf blight: a participatory approach for plant breeding and selection for taro improvement in Samoa. In: Proceedings of international symposium on participatory plant breeding and participatory plant genetic resource enhancement. Pokhara, NepalGoogle Scholar
  26. Jackson GVH (1980) Diseases and pests of Taro. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New CaledoniaGoogle Scholar
  27. Jenkins G, Okumus A (1992) Indiscriminate synapsis in achiasmate Allium fistulosum L. (Liliaceae). J Cell Sci 103:415–422Google Scholar
  28. Jianchu X, Yongping Y, Yingdong P, Ayad WG, Eyzaguirre PB (2001) Genetic diversity in taro (Colocasia esculenta Schott, Araceae) in China: an ethnobotanical and genetic approach. Econ Bot 55:14–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jo J, Purushotham PM, Han K, Lee H-R, Nah G, Kang B-C (2017) Development of a genetic map for onion (Allium cepa L.) using reference-free genotyping-by-sequencing and SNP assays. Front Plant Sci 8:1606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jones RN (1990) Cytogenetics. In: Brewster JL, Rabinowitch HD (eds) Onions and allied crops. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 1–214Google Scholar
  31. Kirtikar KR, Basu BD (2001) Indian medicinal plants. Oriental Enterprises, DehradunGoogle Scholar
  32. Lammerts van Bueren ET, van Soest LJM, de Groot EC, Boukema IW, Osman AM (2005) Broadening the genetic base of onion to develop better-adapted varieties for organic farming systems. Euphytica 146:125–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Larry R, Joanne L (2007) Genetic resources of tomato. In: Razdan MK, Mattoo AK (eds) Genetic improvement of solanaceous crops, vol 2. Science Publishers, EnfieldGoogle Scholar
  34. Liguori L, Califano R, Albanese D, Raimo F, Crescitelli A, Di Matteo M (2017) Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of five white onion (Allium cepa L.) landraces. J Food Qual 2017:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Madhusoodanan KJ, Pal M (1981) Cytology of vegetable Amaranths. Bot J Linn Soc 82:61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mahn A, Reyes A (2012) An overview of health-promoting compounds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and the effect of processing. Food Sci Technol Int 18:503–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mamiro DP, Maerere AP, Sibuga KP, Ebaugh MJ, Miller SA, Mtui HD, Mgembe E, Msuya-Bengesi CP, Aloyce A (2014) Local community's knowledge on onion production, pests and pests management in Kilosa and Kilolo districts, Tanzania. Tanz J Agric Sci 13:18–26Google Scholar
  38. Morales-López J, Centeno-Álvarez M, Nieto-Camacho A, López MG, Pérez-Hernández E, Pérez-Hernández N, Fernández-Martínez E (2016) Evaluation of antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of white cabbage essential oil. Pharm Biol 55:233–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Muñoz ER, Ruiz GH, Aboytes GP, Piña GL (2009) Antioxidant capacity and antimutagenic activity of natural oleoresin from greenhouse grown tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum). Plant Foods Hum Nutr 64:46–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. NRC (National Research Council) (1984) Amaranth: modern prospects for an ancient crop. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  41. Pal M, Khoshoo TN (1972) Evolution and improvement of cultivated amaranths (v. Inviability, weakness and sterility in hybrids). J Hered 63:78–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pal M, Khoshoo TN (1974) Grain amaranth: Evolutionary studies in world crops: diversity and change in Indian subcontinent. Cambridge University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  43. Peralta IE, Spooner DM (2000) Classification of wild tomatoes: a review. Tomo 28:45–54Google Scholar
  44. Peter K, Gandhi P (2017) Rediscovering the therapeutic potential of Amaranthus species: a review. Egypt J Bas Appl Sci 4:196–205Google Scholar
  45. Prior RL, Cao G (2000) Antioxidant phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables: diet and health implications. HortScience 35:588–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rastogi A, Shukla S (2013) Amaranth: a new millennium crop of nutraceutical values. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 53:109–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Saavedra TM, Figueroa GA, Cauih JGD (2017) Origin and evolution of tomato production Lycopersicon esculentum in México. Ciência Rural 47:20160526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sauer J (1967) The grain amaranths and their relatives: a revised taxonomic and geographic survey. Ann Missouri Bot Gard 54:103–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Schwinn KE, Ngo H, Kenel F, Brummell DA, Albert NW, McCallum JA, Pither-Joyce M, Crowhurst RN, Eady C, Davies KM (2016) The Onion (Allium cepa L.) R2R3-MYB gene MYB1 regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis. Front Plant Sci 7:1865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Shetty AA, Magadum S, Managanvi K (2013) Vegetables as sources of antioxidants. J Food Nutr Disor 2:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Shukla S, Singh SP (2000) Studies on genetic parameters in vegetable amaranth. J Genet Breed 54:133–135Google Scholar
  52. Shukla S, Bhargava A, Chatterjee A, Srivastava A, Singh SP (2006) Genotypic variability in vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) for foliage yield and its contributing traits over successive cuttings and years. Euphytica 151:103–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Shukla S, Bhargava A, Chatterjee A, Pandey AC, Mishra BK (2010) Diversity in phenotypic and nutritional traits in vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor): a nutritionally underutilized crop. J Sci Food Agric 90:139–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Steimez KA, Potter JD (1996) Vegetables, fruits and cancer prevention: a review. J Am Diet Assoc 96:1027–1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Stockert JC, Gimenez-Martin G, Sogo JM (1970) Nucleolus and synaptonemal complexes in pachytene meiocytes of Allium cepa. Cytobiologie 2:235–250Google Scholar
  56. Suma S, Ambika SR, Kazinczi G, Narwal SS (2002) Allelopathic plants. 6. Amaranth spp. Allelopath J 10:1–11Google Scholar
  57. Testen AL, Mamiro DP, Mtui HD, Nahson J, Mbega ER, Francis DM, Miller SA (2016) Introduction and evaluation of tomato germplasm by participatory mother and baby trials in the Morogoro region of Tanzania. HortScience 51:1467–1474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tucker JB (1986) Amaranth: the once and future crop. Bioscience 36:9–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Van Bueren EL, Jones SS, Tamm L, Murphy KM, Myers JR, Leifert C, Messmer MM (2011) The need to breed crop varieties suitable for organic farming, using wheat, tomato and broccoli as examples: a review. NJAS Wagening J Life Sci 58:193–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Vasanthi HR, Mukherjee S, Das DK (2009) Potential health benefits of broccoli- a chemico-biological overview. Mini-Rev Med Chem 9:749–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Weber CF (2017) Broccoli microgreens: a mineral-rich crop that can diversify food systems. Front Nutr 4:7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Willcox JK, Catignani GL, Lazarus S (2003) Tomatoes and cardiovascular health. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 43:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wolfe MS, Baresel JP, Desclaux D, Goldringer I, Hoad S, Kovacs G, Löschenberger F, Miedaner T, Østergård H, Lammerts van Bueren ET (2008) Developments in breeding cereals for organic agriculture. Euphytica 163:323–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Yamashita Y, Shimamoto K (1989) Regeneration of plants from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) protoplasts. In: YPS B (ed) Plant protoplasts and genetic engineering I. Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol 8. Springer, Berlin/HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  65. Yang DK (2018) Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) protects against H2O2-induced oxidative stress by preventing mitochondrial dysfunction in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018:2179021PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Atul Bhargava
    • 1
  • Shilpi Srivastava
    • 2
  1. 1.Amity Institute of BiotechnologyAmity University Uttar Pradesh (Lucknow Campus)LucknowIndia
  2. 2.Amity Institute of BiotechnologyAmity University Uttar Pradesh (Lucknow Campus)LucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations