Self-centring Braces with SMA Elements



This chapter proceeds with discussions of the application of SMA elements in self-centring bracing members in framed structures. First, the existing solutions for self-centring braces are briefly introduced, and the potential limitations are also outlined. A series of newly proposed braces, employing SMA wires, tendons or ring springs, are subsequently discussed in detail. The main focus of this chapter is on the design principle, working mechanism, and fundamental mechanical behaviour of the kernel devices for the braces. Some technical issues such as the manufacturing process and annealing scheme are particularly addressed for the devices equipped with SMA ring spring systems.


  1. AISC (2010) Seismic provisions for structural steel buildings, (ANSI/AISC 341-10). American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, IL, USAGoogle Scholar
  2. Chou CC, Chen SY (2010) Subassemblage tests and finite element analyses of sandwiched buckling-restrained braces. Eng Struct 32(8):2108–2121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chou CC, Chen YC, Pham DH, Truong VM (2014) Steel braced frames with dual-core SCBs and sandwiched BRBs: mechanics, modeling and seismic demands. Eng Struct 72:26–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chou CC, Wu TH, Beato ARO, Chung PT, Chen YC (2016) Seismic design and tests of a full-scale one-story one-bay steel frame with a dual-core self-centering brace. Eng Struct 111:435–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Christopoulos C, Tremblay R, Kim HJ, Lacerte M (2008) Self-centering energy dissipative bracing system for the seismic resistance of structures: development and validation. J Struct Eng-ASCE 134(1):96–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. DesRoches R, McCormick J, Delemont MA (2004) Cyclical properties of superelastic shape memory alloys. J Struct Eng-ASCE 130(1):38–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dolce M, Cardone D (2001) Mechanical behaviour of SMA elements for seismic applications—part 2 austenite NiTi wires subjected to tension. Int J Mech Sci 43(11):2657–2677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eatherton MR, Fahnestock LA, Miller DJ (2014) Computational study of self-centering buckling-restrained braced frame seismic performance. Earthq Eng Struct D 43(13):1897–1914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eatherton MR, Hajjar JF (2011) Residual drifts of self-centering systems including effects of ambient building resistance. Earthq Spectra 27(3):719–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Erochko J, Christopoulos C, Tremblay R, Choi H (2011) Residual drift response of SMRFs and BRB frames in steel buildings designed according to ASCE 7-05. J Struct Eng-ASCE 137(5):589–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Erochko J, Christopoulos C, Tremblay R (2015a) Design, testing, and detailed component modeling of a high-capacity self-centering energy-dissipative brace. J Struct Eng-ASCE 141(8):04014193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Erochko J, Christopoulos C, Tremblay R (2015b) Design and testing of an enhanced-elongation telescoping self-centering energy-dissipative brace. J Struct Eng-ASCE 141(6):04014163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fahnestock LA, Ricles JM, Sause R (2007) Experimental evaluation of a large-scale buckling-restrained braced frame. J Struct Eng-ASCE 133(9):1205–1214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fang C, Yam MCH, Lam ACC, Zhang YY (2015) Feasibility study of shape memory alloy ring spring systems for self-centring seismic resisting devices. Smart Mater Struct 24(7):075024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fang C, Wang W, Zhang A, Sause R, Ricles J, Chen YY (2019) Behavior and design of self-centering energy dissipative devices equipped with superelastic SMA ring springs. In Press, J Struct Eng-ASCEGoogle Scholar
  16. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) (2012) Seismic performance assessment of buildings, volume 1—methodology. FEMA P-58-1, prepared by the SAC Joint Venture for FEMA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  17. Hjelmstad KD, Popov EP (1984) Characteristics of eccentrically braced frames. J Struct Eng-ASCE 110(2):340–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kari A, Ghassemieh M, Abolmaali SA (2011) A new dual bracing system for improvingthe seismic behavior of steel structures. Smart Mater Struct 20(12):125020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kersting RA, Fahnestock LA, López WA (2015) Seismic design of steel buckling-restrained braced frames-a guide for practicing engineers. NIST GCR 15-917-34Google Scholar
  20. McCormick J, Aburano H, Ikenaga M, Nakashima M (2008) Permissible residual deformation levels for building structures considering both safety and human elements. In: Proceedings of 14th world conference on earthquake engineering, Seismological Press of China, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  21. Miller DJ, Fahnestock LA, Eatherton MR (2012) Development and experimental validation of a nickel-titanium shape memory alloy self-centering buckling-restrained brace. Eng Struct 40:288–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Moradi S, Alam MS, Asgarian B (2014) Incremental dynamic analysis of steel frames equipped with NiTi shape memory alloy braces. Struct Des Tall Spec 23:1406–1425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ozbulut OE, Hurlebaus S (2012) Application of a SMA-based hybrid control device to 20-story nonlinear benchmark building. Earthq Eng Struct D 41(13):1831–1843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Piedboeuf MC, Gauvin R, Thomas M (1998) Damping behaviour of shape memory alloys: strain amplitude, frequency and temperature effects. J Sound Vib 214(5):885–901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Qiu CX (2016) Seismic-resisting self-centering structures with superelastic shape memory alloy damping devices. PhD thesis, The Hong Kong Polytechnic UniversityGoogle Scholar
  26. Qiu CX, Zhu SY (2016) High-mode effects on seismic performance of multi-story self-centering braced steel frames. J Constr Steel Res 119:133–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Qiu CX, Zhu SY (2017) Shake table test and numerical study of self-centering steel frame with SMA braces. Earthq Eng Struct D 46(1):117–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sabelli R, Mahin SA, Chang C (2003) Seismic demands on steel braced frame buildings with buckling-restrained braces. Eng Struct 25(5):655–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Takeuchi T, Hajjar JF, Matsui R, Nishimoto K, Aiken ID (2010) Local buckling restraint condition for core plates in buckling restrained braces. J Constr Steel Res 66(2):139–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tremblay R, Bolduc P, Neville R, DeVall R (2006) Seismic testing and performance of buckling-restrained bracing systems. Can J Civil Eng 33(2):183–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wang W, Fang C, Liu J (2016) Large size superelastic SMA bars: heat treatment strategy, mechanical property and seismic application. Smart Mater Struct 25(7):075001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wang W, Fang C, Liu J (2017a) Self-centering beam-to-column connections with combined superelastic SMA bolts and steel angles. J Struct Eng-ASCE 143(2):04016175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wang W, Fang C, Yang X, Chen YY, Ricles J, Sause R (2017b) Innovative use of a shape memory alloy ring spring system for self-centering connections. Eng Struct 153:503–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wang W, Fang C, Zhang A, Liu XS (2019) Manufacturing and performance of a novel self-centring damper with shape memory alloy ring springs for seismic resilience. Struct Control Hlth. Scholar
  35. Xu X, Zhang YF, Luo YZ (2016) Self-centering eccentrically braced frames using shape memory alloy bolts and post-tensioned tendons. J Constr Steel Res 125:190–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zhou Z, Xie Q, Lei XC, He XT, Meng SP (2015) Experimental investigation of the hysteretic performance of dual-tube self-centering buckling-restrained braces with composite tendons. J Compos Constr 19(6):04015011CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tongji UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations