Acute Liver Failure

  • Seiichi Mawatari
  • Yoshinori Harada
  • Masaki Iwai
  • Paul Y. Kwo
  • Akio IdoEmail author


Acute liver failure (ALF) is defined as severe liver dysfunction characterized by an elevated prothrombin time with encephalopathy occurring within 8 weeks after onset of the first symptom without a history of chronic liver disease. Pathologically, ALF is characterized by a massive cell death and the suppression of the regenerative capacity of the liver. Orthotopic liver transplantation is the most effective treatment for patients with ALF, in addition to conservative medical management treating specific causes and supporting multiple organ failure. Several new therapeutic modalities, including liver regeneration medicine and anti-apoptotic or cell protective drugs, are currently being investigated.


Acute liver failure Hepatic encephalopathy Liver regeneration Liver transplantation Hemodiafiltration Plasmapheresis 



Acute liver failure


Epidermal growth factor


Hepatitis A virus


Hepatitis B virus


Hepatitis E virus


Hepatocyte growth factor


High-volume plasmapheresis




Molecular adsorbent recirculating system


Orthotopic liver transplantation


Transforming growth factor α


Tumor necrosis factor


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seiichi Mawatari
    • 1
  • Yoshinori Harada
    • 2
  • Masaki Iwai
    • 3
  • Paul Y. Kwo
    • 4
  • Akio Ido
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.KagoshimaJapan
  2. 2.KyotoJapan
  3. 3.KyotoJapan
  4. 4.CaliforniaUSA

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