Advertisement

What Do We Know About Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Youth in India: A Synthesis of Literature

Chapter

Abstract

Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is an important facet of the life of young people. Empowering them with the right knowledge and instilling the right attitude during this phase would guarantee lesser vulnerabilities and better health outcomes in their future. This chapter explores the various thematic areas within SRH and synthesises evidence regarding what is known about young people’s SRH issues. The research gaps emanating from the literature are described, and the barriers faced by young people in seeking health services for SRH issues have been delineated within the socioecological model. Conducting research among young people is filled with challenges which have been elucidated with the insights gained from conducting key informant interviews with researchers and experts in SRH of young people. There are multiple policies, programmes and laws in India which focus on the sexual and reproductive health of young people. The provisions made under these policies, programmes and laws are critically examined in this chapter to highlight the gaps in them. Through a comprehensive inquiry in the area of SRH of young people based on the existing literature, a deeper understanding of the issue is developed, and recommendations are made to guide policies, programmes and laws to help improve SRH status of young people.

Keywords

Adolescents Youth Reproductive health Sexual health India Review 

References

  1. Acharya, R., Kalyanwala, S., Jejeebhoy, S. J., et al. (2009). Broadening girls’ horizons: Effects of a life skills education programme in rural UP. New Delhi: Population Council.Google Scholar
  2. Acharya, D. R., Bhattarai, R., Poobalan, A., Teijlingen, V. E., & Chapman, G. (2014). Factors associated with teenage pregnancy in South Asia. Health Science Journal, 4(1), 3–14.Google Scholar
  3. Achyut, P., Bhatia, N., Singh, A. K., Verma, R. K., Khandekar, S., Pallav, P., & Gaikward, R. (2011). Building support for gender equality among young adolescents in school: Findings from Mumbai India. Retrieved from United Nations Girls Education Initiative website http://www.ungei.org/resources/files/GEMS_Building_Support_for_Gender_Equality_Adolescents.pdf. Accessed on 28 Sept 2016.
  4. Alexander, M., Garda, L., Kanade, S., Jejeebhoy, S., & Ganatra, B. (2007). Correlates of premarital relationships among unmarried youth in Pune district, Maharashtra, India. International Family Planning Perspectives, 33(4), 150–159.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrew, G., & Patel, V. (2002). Health needs of adolescents: A study of health needs of adolescents in higher secondary schools in Goa. Alto-Porvorim, India: Resource Centre for Adolescent and Child Health.Google Scholar
  6. Arpadi, S. M. (2000). Growth failure in children with HIV infection. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 25(suppl.1), S37–S42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bachloo, T., Kumar, R., Goyal, A., Singh, P., Yadav, S. S., Bhardwaj, A., & Mittal, A. (2016). A study on perception and practice of menstruation among school going adolescent girls in district Ambala Haryana, India. International Journal of Community Medicine And Public Health, 3(4), 931–937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Banerjee, S. K., Andersen, K. L., Warvadekar, J., Aich, P., Rawat, A., & Upadhyay, B. (2015). How prepared are young, rural women in India to address their sexual and reproductive health needs? A cross-sectional assessment of youth in Jharkhand. Reproductive Health, 12(1), 97–107.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Barua, A., & Kurz, K. (2001). Reproductive health-seeking by married adolescent girls in Maharashtra, India. Reproductive Health Matters, 9(17), 53–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Barua, A., Apte, H., & Kumar, P. (2007). Care and support of unmarried adolescent girls in Rajasthan. Economic and Political Weekly, 42(44), 54–62.Google Scholar
  11. Bhanderi, M. N., & Kannan, S. (2010). Untreated reproductive morbidities among ever married women of slums of Rajkot city, Gujarat: The role of class, distance, provider attitudes, and perceived quality of care. Journal of Urban Health, 87(2), 254–263.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist, 32(7), 513–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brown, L. K., & Lourie, K. J. (2000). Children and adolescents living with HIV and AIDS: A review. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 41(1), 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Center for Operations Research and Training (CORT). (2009). Assessment of adolescent reproductive and sexual health (ARSH) centers in Gujarat – A report. Vadodara: CORT.Google Scholar
  15. Chakrapani, V., Newman, P. A., Shunmugam, M., Kurian, A. K., & Dubrow, R. (2009). Barriers to free antiretroviral treatment access for female sex workers in Chennai, India. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 23(11), 973–980.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Char, A., Saavala, M., & Kulmala, T. (2011). Assessing young unmarried men’s access to reproductive health information and services in rural India. BMC Public Health, 11(1), 476–486.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Chauhan, M. G., Patel, H., & Solanki, H. (2016). Reproductive health problems and treatment seeking behavior among adolescent girls of UHTC field practice area, Govt. Medical College, Bhavnagar. National Journal of Community Medicine, 7(5), 355–358.Google Scholar
  18. Chauhan, S. L., Joshi, B. N., Raina, N., & Kulkarni, R. N. (2018). Utilization of quality assessments in improving adolescent reproductive and sexual health services in rural block of Maharashtra, India. International Journal of Community Medicine And Public Health, 5(4), 1639–1646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. CHETNA. (2013). Making health and nutritional information and services accessible to adolescents in the state of Gujrat, India. Retrieved from CHETNA India website http://chetnaindia.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/Moving-Ahead.pdf. Accessed on 2 Oct 2016.
  20. Collumbien, M., & Hawkes, S. (2000). Missing men’s messages: Does the reproductive health approach respond to men’s sexual health needs? Culture, Health & Sexuality, 2(2), 135–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Collumbien, M., Mishra, M., & Blackmore, C. (2011). Youth-friendly services in two rural districts of West Bengal and Jharkhand, India: Definite progress, a long way to go. Reproductive Health Matters, 19(37), 174–183.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Committee of Resource Organisations (CORO). (2015). CORO annual report 2014–15. Retrieved from CORO India website http://coroindia.org/content/resources/Annual_Report_CORO_2014-15.pdf. Accessed on 1 Oct 2016.
  23. Daral, S., Khokhar, A., & Pradhan, S. (2016). Prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment among school-going adolescent girls in a semi-urban area of Delhi, India. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 62(3), 227–240.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Das, M., Ghosh, S., Verma, R., O’Connor, B., Fewer, S., Virata, M. C., & Miller, E. (2014). Gender attitudes and violence among urban adolescent boys in India. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 19(1), 99–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Datta, A., Manna, N., Datta, M., Sarkar, J., Baur, B., & Datta, S. (2012). Menstruation and menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls of West Bengal, India: A school based comparative study. Global Journal of Medicine, 1(5), 50–57.Google Scholar
  26. Devi, I. T., Akoijam, B. S., Nabakishore, N., Jitendra, N., & Nonibala, T. (2007). Characteristics of primigravid women seeking abortion services at a referral center, Manipur. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 32(3), 175–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Doddihal, C. R., & Katti, S. M. (2017). A prospective study of adolescent pregnancy complications in a rural area of South India. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 5(9), 3939–3942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dorairajan, G., Chinnakali, P., & Mohan, B. (2015). Knowledge, attitude & factors affecting potential use of emergency contraception in college students in Puducherry, South India. The Indian Journal of Medical Research, 141(1), 122–124.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Dutta, I., & Joshi, P. (2013). Maternal and perinatal outcome in teenage vs. Vicenarian primigravidae-a clinical study. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 7(12), 2881–2884.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Dutta, I., Jha, N., & Dutta, D. K. (2014). Teenage pregnancy – A socio-demographic study at a rural medical college hospital in Southern India. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences, 5(4), 29–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ganatra, B. (2000). Abortion research in India: What we know and what we need to know. In R. Ramasubban & S. J. Jejeebhoy (Eds.), Women’s reproductive health in India. Jaipur: Rawat Publications.Google Scholar
  32. Ganatra, B., & Hirve, S. (2002). Induced abortions among adolescent women in rural Maharashtra, India. Reproductive Health Matters, 10(19), 76–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Garg, S., Sharma, N., & Sahay, R. (2001). Socio-cultural aspects of menstruation in an urban slum in Delhi, India. Reproductive Health Matters, 9(17), 16–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Garg, R., Goyal, S., & Gupta, S. (2012). India moves towards menstrual hygiene: Subsidized sanitary napkins for rural adolescent girls—Issues and challenges. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 16(4), 767–774.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. General Assembly resolution 70/1, Transforming our world: The 2030 agenda for sustainable development (25 September 2015), available from UN website http://undocs.org/A/RES/70/1
  36. Government of India (GOI). (1971). The medical termination of pregnancy act (Act. No. 34). New Delhi: Government of India.Google Scholar
  37. Government of Karnataka. (2014). Operational guidelines for “SHUCHI YOJANE”. Bangalore: Directorate of Health and Family Welfare Services, Government of Karnataka.Google Scholar
  38. Guilamo-Ramos, V., Soletti, A. B., Burnette, D., Sharma, S., Leavitt, S., & McCarthy, K. (2012). Parent–adolescent communication about sex in rural India. US–India collaboration to prevent adolescent HIV. Qualitative Health Research, 22(6), 788–800.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Gupta, M., Bhatnagar, N., & Bahugana, P. (2015). Inequity in awareness and utilization of adolescent reproductive and sexual health services in union territory, Chandigarh, North India. Indian Journal of Public Health, 59(1), 9–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hazarika, I. (2011). Factors that determine the use of skilled care during delivery in India: Implications for achievement of MDG-5 targets. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 15(8), 1381–1388.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hegde, S. K., Agrawal, T., Ramesh, N., Sugara, M., Joseph, P. M., Singh, S., & Thimmaiah, S. (2013). Reproductive tract infections among women in a peri-urban under privileged area in Bangalore, India: Knowledge, prevalence, and treatment seeking behavior. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 6(2), 215–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hossain, S., & Sen, V. (2017). Socio cultural taboos and restrictions during menstruation followed by school going adolescent girls in a semi urban area of Jaipur, Rajasthan. Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Community Medicine, 3(4), 285–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) and Macro International. (2007). National family health survey (NFHS-3), India, 2005–06. Mumbai: IIPS.Google Scholar
  44. International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) and Population Council. (2010). Youth in India: Situation and needs 2006–2007. Mumbai: IIPS.Google Scholar
  45. Jain, M., Jain, S., Patil, S., & Bang, A. (2014). A study on knowledge attitude and practice of contraception in school going children in Wardha district in Central India. International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3(4), 903–908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jain, M. A., Jain, S. M., Patil, S., & Bang, A. (2016). A study on knowledge, attitude and practice of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV in adolescent population in Wardha, Maharashtra, India. International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics, 3(2), 367–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jansankhya Sthirta Kosh. (2013). Scheme: Prerna strategy. Retrieved from Jansankhya Sthirta Kosh website http://www.jsk.gov.in/prernastrategy.pdf. Accessed on 2 Oct 2016.
  48. Jaya, J., & Yadav, S. (2010). Adolescence education programme: Evolution, implementation status and lessons learned. Paper presented at the second UNFPA Regional workshop on programming for young people: The framework for action, Kathmandu, Nepal.Google Scholar
  49. Jejeebhoy, S. J., & Santhya, K. G. (2011a). Parent-child communication on sexual and reproductive health matters: Perspectives of mothers and fathers of youth in India. New Delhi: Population Council.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jejeebhoy, S. J., & Santhya, K. G. (2011b). Sexual and reproductive health of young people in India: A review of policies, laws and programs. New Delhi: Population Council.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jejeebhoy, S. J., Kalyanwala, S., Zavier, A. F., Kumar, R., & Jha, N. (2010). Experience seeking abortion among unmarried young women in Bihar and Jharkhand, India: Delays and disadvantages. Reproductive Health Matters, 18(35), 163–174.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Jejeebhoy, S. J., Santhya, K. G., & Sabarwal, S. (2013). Gender-based violence: A qualitative exploration of norms, experiences and positive deviance. New Delhi: Population Council.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jejeebhoy, S. J., Santhya, K. G., Singh, S. K., Rampal, S., & Saxena, K. (2014a). Provision of adolescent reproductive and sexual health services in India: Provider perspectives. New Delhi: Population Council.Google Scholar
  54. Jejeebhoy, S. J., Santhya, K. G., & Zavier, A. J. (2014b). Demand for contraception to delay first pregnancy among young married women in India. Studies in Family Planning, 45(2), 183–201.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Joseph, N., Shetty, B., Hasreen, F., Ishwarya, R., Baniya, M., Sachdeva, S., & Agarwal, S. (2015). Awareness and attitudes toward emergency contraceptives among college students in South India. The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India, 66(1), 363–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kakani, A., & Jaiswal, A. (2012). Awareness level of family planning methods in adolescent girls of different socio-economic groups in rural sectors, in Central India. International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1(1), 3–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kalyanwala, S., Zavier, A. J. F., & Jejeebhoy, S. (2010). Public health facilities and women’s access to abortion: A situational analysis in Maharashtra and Rajasthan. New Delhi: Population Council.Google Scholar
  58. Kamaljit, K., Arora, B., Singh, K. G., & Neki, N. S. (2012). Social beliefs and practices associated with menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls of Amritsar, Punjab, India. Journal of International Sciences Academy, 25(2), 69–70.Google Scholar
  59. Kamath, R., Ghosh, D., Lena, A., & Chandrasekaran, V. (2013). A study on knowledge and practices regarding menstrual hygiene among rural and urban adolescent girls in Udupi taluk, Manipal, India. Global Journal of Medicine and Public Health, 2(4), 1–9.Google Scholar
  60. Kamini, S., & Avvaru, K. V. (2014). Teenage pregnancy: Maternal and fetal outcomes. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS), 1(13), 41–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kansal, S., Singh, S., & Kumar, A. (2017). Awareness of legal and social issues related to reproductive health among adolescent girls in rural Varanasi. Indian Journal of Public Health, 61(1), 26–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kesterton, A. J., Cleland, J., Sloggett, A., & Ronsmans, C. (2010). Institutional delivery in rural India: The relative importance of accessibility and economic status. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 10(1), 30.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Kotian, S. M., Chaudhary, V. K., Mutya, V. S., Sekhon, A. S., Sriraman, S., & Prasad, P. (2017). Assessment of knowledge, practice and perception of menstruation among adult women in the reproductive age group, in Mangalore, India. International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 6(10), 4595–4601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kumar, A., Singh, T., Basu, S., Pandey, S., & Bhargava, V. (2007). Outcome of teenage pregnancy. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 74(10), 927–931.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Kusuma, M. L., & Ahmed, M. (2016). Awareness, perception and practices of government pre-university adolescent girls regarding menstruation in Mysore city, India. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 3(6), 1593–1599.Google Scholar
  66. Lala, M. M. (2014). Orphans of the HIV epidemic: The challenges from toddlerhood to adolescence and beyond. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 17(4Suppl 3), 19483.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Law Commission of India. (2008). Proposal to amend the prohibition of child marriage act, 2006 and other allied laws (Report no. 205). New Delhi: Law Commission of India, Government of India.Google Scholar
  68. Lim, S. S., Dandona, L., Hoisington, J. A., James, S. L., Hogan, M. C., & Gakidou, E. (2010). India’s Janani Suraksha Yojana, a conditional cash transfer programme to increase births in health facilities: An impact evaluation. The Lancet, 375(9730), 2009–2023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mahajan, P., & Sharma, N. (2005a). Parents attitude towards imparting sex education to their adolescent girls. Anthropologist, 7(3), 197–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mahajan, P., & Sharma, N. (2005b). Awareness level of adolescent girls regarding HIV/AIDS (a comparative study of rural and urban areas of Jammu). Journal of Human Ecology, 17(4), 313–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mahanta, T. G., Boruah, M., Singh, V. K., Gogoi, P., Rane, T., & Mahanta, B. N. (2016). Effect of social and behavior change communication by using infotainment in community perception of adolescent girls for reproductive and sexual health care in high priority districts of Assam. Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health, 4(3), 133–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mason, L., Sivakami, M., Thakur, H., Kakade, N., Beauman, A., Alexander, K. T., van Eijke, A. M., Laserson, K. F., Thakkar, M. B., & Phillips-Howard, P. A. (2017). ‘We do not know’: A qualitative study exploring boys perceptions of menstruation in India. Reproductive Health, 14(1), 174.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12978-017-0435-x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Mathur, S., Greene, M., & Malhotra, A. (2003). Too young to wed. The lives, rights, and health of young married girls. Retrieved from ICRW website http://www.icrw.org/sites/default/files/publications/Too-Young-to-Wed-the-Lives-Rights-and-Health-of-Young-Married-Girls.pdf. Accessed on 26 Sept 2016.
  74. McManus, A., & Dhar, L. (2008). Study of knowledge, perception and attitude of adolescent girls towards STIs/HIV, safer sex and sex education: (a cross sectional survey of urban adolescent school girls in South Delhi, India). BMC Women’s Health, 8(1), 12.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Medhi, R., Das, B., Das, A., Ahmed, M., Bawri, S., & Rai, S. (2016). Adverse obstetrical and perinatal outcome in adolescent mothers associated with first birth: A hospital-based case-control study in a tertiary care hospital in North-East India. Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, 7, 37–42.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Meier, E. (2003). The growth of AIDS orphans and policy solutions. Paediatric Nursing, 29(1), 75.Google Scholar
  77. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW). (2000). National population policy 2000. New Delhi: MOHFW, Government of India.Google Scholar
  78. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW). (2002a). National health policy. New Delhi: MOHFW, Government of India.Google Scholar
  79. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW). (2002b). The medical termination of pregnancy amendment act of 2002. No. 64 of 2002 gazette of India. New Delhi: MOHFW, Government of India.Google Scholar
  80. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW). (2006). Implementation guide on RCH II: Adolescent reproductive and sexual health strategy for state and district programme managers. New Delhi: MOHFW, Government of India.Google Scholar
  81. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW). (2008). School health programme. New Delhi: MOHFW, Government of India.Google Scholar
  82. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW). (2009). Reproductive and sexual health of young people in India. New Delhi: MOHFW, Government of India.Google Scholar
  83. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW). (2014a). Guidelines for implementation of RKSK. New Delhi: MOHFW, Government of India.Google Scholar
  84. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW). (2014b). Strategy handbook, RKSK. New Delhi: MOHFW, Government of India.Google Scholar
  85. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW). (2016). Revised guidelines for menstrual hygiene scheme. New Delhi: MOHFW, Government of India.Google Scholar
  86. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW). (2017). National health policy. New Delhi: MOHFW, Government of India.Google Scholar
  87. Ministry of Human Resource Development (MOHRD). (2005). Adolescence education program. Retrieved from MOHRD website http://mhrd.gov.in/adolescence_programme. Accessed on 24 Sept 2016.
  88. Ministry of Law and Justice (MOLJ). (2007). The prohibition of child marriage act, 2006. No. 6 of 2007 gazette of India. New Delhi: Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India.Google Scholar
  89. Ministry of Women and Child Development (MOWCD). (2005). National Plan of action for children 2005. New Delhi: MOWCD, Government of India.Google Scholar
  90. Ministry of Women and Child Development (MOWCD). (2006). Protection of women from domestic violence act, 2005. 43 of 2005 gazette of India: Extraordinary. New Delhi: MOWCD, Government of India.Google Scholar
  91. Ministry of Women and Child Development (MOWCD). (2010). Rajiv Gandhi scheme for empowerment of adolescent girls (RGSEAG) – Sabla: Implementation guidelines for state governments/UT administrations. National plan of action for children 2005. New Delhi: MOWCD, Government of India.Google Scholar
  92. Ministry of Women and Child Development (MOWCD). (2013). Model guidelines under section 39 of the protection of children from sexual offences act, 2012. New Delhi: MOWCD, Government of India.Google Scholar
  93. Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports (MOYAS). (2003). National youth policy 2003. New Delhi: MOYAS, Government of India.Google Scholar
  94. Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports (MOYAS). (2014). National youth policy 2014. New Delhi: MOYAS, Government of India.Google Scholar
  95. Mohammad Iliyas, C. (2016). A cross sectional study on awareness about emergency contraception among medical students in Kannur, Kerala, India. International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health, 3(11), 3216–3219.Google Scholar
  96. Mohanty, S., Panda, M., & Tripathi, R. M. (2016). Assessment of menstrual health among school going adolescent girls of urban slums of Berhampur, Odisha, India: A cross-sectional study. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 3(12), 3440–3444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Mudey, A. B., Prasad, M. A., Nayak, S., & Chandrakar, D. (2016). Knowledge of different aspects of menstruation between adolescent girls of rural and urban area in Wardha District in Central India: A comparative study. PARIPEX-Indian Journal of Research, 5(6), 26–28.Google Scholar
  98. Mukhopadhyay, P., Chaudhuri, R. N., & Paul, B. (2010). Hospital-based perinatal outcomes and complications in teenage pregnancy in India. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, 28(5), 494–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Muralidharan, A., Patil, H., & Patnaik, S. (2015). Unpacking the policy landscape for menstrual hygiene management: Implications for school wash programmes in India. Waterlines, 34(1), 79–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Nagaraj, C., & Konapur, K. S. (2016). Effect of health education on awareness and practices related to menstruation among rural adolescent school girls in Bengaluru, Karnataka. International Journal of Preventive and Public Health Sciences, 2(1), 18–21.Google Scholar
  101. Nair, A., & Devi, S. (2015). Obstetric outcome of teenage pregnancy in comparison with pregnant women of 20–29 years: A retrospective study. International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 4(5), 1319–1323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Nanda, P., Gautam, A., Verma, R., Khanna, A., Khan, N., Brahme, D., Boyle, S., & Kumar, S. (2014). Study on masculinity, intimate partner violence and son preference in India. New Delhi: International Center for Research on Women.Google Scholar
  103. Naroor, B. R., & Tribhuwan, R. D. (2017). Determinants and outcome of early marriage among adolescents: A descriptive study. Innovational Journal of Nursing and Healthcare, 2(4), 177–185.Google Scholar
  104. Naswa, S., & Marfatia, Y. S. (2010). Adolescent HIV/AIDS: Issues and challenges. Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS, 31(1), 1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Nath, A. (2009). HIV/AIDS and Indian youth-a review of the literature (1980–2008). SAHARA: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance, 6(1), 2–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Nath, A., & Garg, S. (2008). Adolescent friendly health services in India: A need of the hour. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, 62(11), 465–472.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO). (2002). National AIDS prevention and control policy. New Delhi: NACO. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.Google Scholar
  108. National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO). (2004). Annual report 2002–2004. New Delhi: NACO.Google Scholar
  109. National Behavioural Surveillance Survey (BSS). (2006). Youth (15–24 years). New Delhi: NACO, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.Google Scholar
  110. National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT). (2011). Training and resource materials under the adolescent education programme. New Delhi: NCERT. Retrieved from NCERT website http://www.ncert.nic.in/programmes/aep/aep.html. Accessed on 26 Sept 2016.
  111. National Institute of Medical Statistics and National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO). (2008).Google Scholar
  112. Navaneetham, K., & Dharmalingam, A. (2002). Utilization of maternal health care services in Southern India. Social Science and Medicine, 55(10), 1849–1869.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Nayak, S., Toppo, N. A., Tomar, S. P., Kasar, P. K., & Tiwari, R. (2016). A study on knowledge about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and AIDS among adolescents of rural areas of Jabalpur district. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 5(8), 1592–1595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Office of Registrar General, India. (2011). Special bulletin on maternal mortality in India 2007–09. New Delhi: Office of Registrar General, India.Google Scholar
  115. Pachauri, S., & Santhya, K. G. (2002). Reproductive choices for Asian adolescents: A focus on contraceptive behavior. International Family Planning Perspectives, 28(4), 186–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Pandve, H. T., Bhawalkar, J. S., & Bhuyar, P. A. (2008). AIDS orphans: An ignored issue in India. Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS, 29(1), 47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Parasuraman, S., Kishor, S., Singh, S. K., & Vaidehi, Y. (2009). A profile of youth in India, National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), India, 2006–06. Mumbai: IIPS.Google Scholar
  118. Patidar, H. (2015). Pregnancy outcomes among adolescent tribal women: Insights from South-East Rajasthan, India. Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health, 12(2), e11165.Google Scholar
  119. Patil, M. S., & Angadi, M. M. (2013). Menstrual pattern among adolescent girls in rural area of Bijapur. Al Ameen Journal of Medical Sciences, 6(1), 17–20.Google Scholar
  120. Patil, V. V., & Udgiri, R. (2016). Menstrual hygienic practices among adolescent girls of rural North Karnataka region, India. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 3(7), 1872–1876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Patra, S. (2016). Motherhood in childhood: Addressing reproductive health hazards among adolescent married women in India. Reproductive Health, 13(1), 52–60.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. Planning Commission. (2011). Mid-term appraisal eleventh five year plan 2007–2012. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  123. Population Council & UNICEF. (2013). Adolescents in India: A desk review of existing evidence and behaviours, programmes and policies. New Delhi: UNICEF.Google Scholar
  124. Prasad, J. H., Abraham, S., Kurz, K. M., George, V., Lalitha, M. K., John, R., Jayapaul, M. N. R., Shetty, N., & Joseph, A. (2005). Reproductive tract infections among young married women in Tamil Nadu. India. International Family Planning Perspectives, 31(2), 73–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Prusty, R. K., & Unisa, S. (2013). Reproductive tract infections and treatment seeking behavior among married adolescent women 15–19 years in India. International Journal of MCH and AIDS, 2(1), 103–110.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. Raghav, P. R., Bhutani, S. T., Chaudhari, S. N., & Bamane, S. S. (2013). Teenage pregnancy: A product of various social and health factors. Indian Medical Gazette, 147(12), 444–447.Google Scholar
  127. Rajagopal, S., & Mathur, K. (2017). ‘Breaking the silence around menstruation’: Experiences of adolescent girls in an urban setting in India. Gender and Development, 25(2), 303–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Rajpoot, S. S., & Gupta, K. (2016). Awareness about RTI and facts of HIV/AIDS among rural college going girls in Varanasi district. International Journal of Home Science, 2(3), 71–73.Google Scholar
  129. Ramesh, A., Bhagwan, D., Holla, R., Unnikrishnan, B., Thapar, R., Mithra, P., Kumar, N., & Kulkarni, V. (2016). Knowledge and perception towards female feticide among adolescents of coastal South India. National Journal of Community Medicine, 7(9), 736–740.Google Scholar
  130. Ramya, S., Rupavani, K., & Bupathy, A. (2014). Effect of educational program on premenstrual syndrome in adolescent school girls. International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3(1), 168–171.Google Scholar
  131. Rani, M., & Bonu, S. (2003). Rural Indian women’s care-seeking behavior and choice of provider for gynecological symptoms. Studies in Family Planning, 34(3), 173–185.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Rani, S., Ghosh, S., & Sharan, M. (2007). Maternal healthcare seeking among tribal adolescent girls in Jharkhand. Economic and Political Weekly, 42(48), 58–61.Google Scholar
  133. Rao, K. S., Ramya, K. S., Batchu, D., & Reddy, M. P. (2017). Teenage pregnancy and its obstetric outcome. Journal of Evidence Based Medicine and Healthcare, 4(15), 901–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Raut, A. V., & Pakhare, A. (2016). Youth and sexual health: A cross-sectional study from an urban slum of Mumbai. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 5(2), 138–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Ray, S., & Dasgupta, A. (2012). Determinants of menstrual hygiene among adolescents girls: A multivariate analysis. National Journal of Community Medicine, 3(2), 294–301.Google Scholar
  136. Rudra, S., Bal, H., & Singh, S. (2013). A retrospective study of teenage pregnancy in a tertiary care hospital. International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2(3), 383–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Rupakala, B. M., Shurthi, A. G., & Nagarathnamma, R. (2013). A study on teenage pregnancy and its maternal and fetal outcome. International Journal of Science and Research (E-ISSN 2319–7064), 5(5), 2486–2489.Google Scholar
  138. Sabarwal, S., & Santhya, K. G. (2012). Treatment-seeking for symptoms of reproductive tract infections among young women in India. International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 38(2), 90–98.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Sachan, B., Idris, M. Z., Jain, S., Kumari, R., & Singh, A. (2012). Age at menarche and menstrual problems among school-going adolescent girls of a North Indian district. Journal of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences, 1(1–2), 56–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Sahay, S., Nirmalkar, A., Sane, S., Verma, A., Reddy, S., & Mehendale, S. (2013). Correlates of sex initiation among school going adolescents in Pune, India. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 80(10), 814–820.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Sajitha, B. (2017). Reproductive health issues among married adolescent girls. International Journal of Applied Research, 3(5), 27–30.Google Scholar
  142. Santhya, K. G., & Jejeebhoy, S. J. (2003). Sexual and reproductive health needs of married adolescent girls. Economic and Political Weekly, 37(41), 4370–4380.Google Scholar
  143. Santhya, K. G., & Jejeebhoy, S. J. (2007a). Young people’s sexual and reproductive health in India: Policies, programmes and realities. New Delhi: Population Council.Google Scholar
  144. Santhya, K. G., & Jejeebhoy, S. J. (2007b). Early marriage and HIV/AIDS: Risk factors among young women in India. Economic and Political Weekly, 42, 1291–1297.Google Scholar
  145. Santhya, K. G., & Jejeebhoy, S. J. (2012). The sexual and reproductive health and rights of young people in India: A review of the situation. New Delhi: Population Council.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Santhya, K. G., Haberland, N., Ram, F., Sinha, R. K., & Mohanty, S. K. (2007). Consent and coercion: Examining unwanted sex among married young women in India. International Family Planning Perspectives, 33(3), 124–132.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Santhya, K. G., Jejeebhoy, S. J., & Ghosh, S. (2008). Early marriage and sexual and reproductive health risks: Experiences of young women and men in Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, India. New Delhi: Population Council.Google Scholar
  148. Santhya, K. G., Ram, U., Acharya, R., Jejeebhoy, S. J., Ram, F., & Singh, A. (2010). Associations between early marriage and young women’s marital and reproductive health outcomes: Evidence from India. International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 36(3), 132–139.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Santhya, K. G., Acharya, R., & Jejeebhoy, S. J. (2011a). Condom use before marriage and its correlates: Evidence from India. International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 37(4), 170–180.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Santhya, K. G., Jejeebhoy, S. J., Acharya, R., & Zavier, A. F. (2011b). Effects of the Janani Suraksha Yojana on maternal and newborn care practices: Women’s experiences in Rajasthan. New Delhi: Population Council.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Sarkar, S., Shrimal, A., Das, J., & Choudhury, S. (2013). Pattern of sexually transmitted infections: A profile from a sexually transmitted infections clinic of a tertiary care hospital of Eastern India. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research, 3(2), 206–209.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  152. Sarkar, A. P., Mandal, R., & Ghorai, S. (2016). Premenstrual syndrome among adolescent girl students in a rural school of West Bengal, India. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 5(03), 408–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Secretary-General’s Report to the General Assembly, A/36/215, 1981.Google Scholar
  154. Sen, A. (2005). India is home to the largest number of AIDS orphans in the world. Retrieved from http://infochangeindia.org/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=241
  155. Sethuraman, K., Gujjarappa, L., Kapadia-Kundu, N., Naved, R., Barua, A., Khoche, P., & Parveen, S. (2007). Delaying the first pregnancy: A survey in Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Bangladesh. Economic and Political Weekly, 42(44), 79–89.Google Scholar
  156. Shankar, P., Dudeja, P., Gadekar, T., & Mukherji, S. (2017). Reproductive health awareness among adolescent girls of a government school in an urban slum of Pune city. Medical Journal of Dr. DY Patil University, 10(2), 133–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Sharma, S., Choudhary, S., Saluja, N., Gaur, D. R., Kumari, S., Pandey, S. M., & Hisar, H. (2016). Knowledge and practices about menstrual hygiene among school adolescent girls in Agroha village of Haryana. Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences, 5(9), 389–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Shekhar, M., Ghosh, S., & Panda, P. (2007). Exploring safe sex awareness and sexual experiences of adolescents in Patna. Economic and Political Weekly, 42(48), 48–55.Google Scholar
  159. Shelat, P. R., Hihoriya, N. H., & Kumbar, S. (2012). Knowledge and attitude towards the use of emergency contraceptive pills among college students. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 1(2), 77–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Shinde, M., Trivedi, A., Shinde, A., & Mishra, S. K. (2017). A study of awareness regarding HIV/AIDS among secondary school students. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 3(6), 1461–1465.Google Scholar
  161. Shrivastav, A., Jiyani, A., & Prajapati, N. (2016). Maternal outcome in teenage pregnancy (16–19 years). International Journal of Science and Research (E-ISSN 2319–7064), 5(5), 1013–1015.Google Scholar
  162. Shukla, M. K., Khan, S., & Srivastava, A. (2016). Common menstrual complaints and use of medication, among undergraduate students of Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India: A cross sectional study. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 3(8), 2180–2185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Singh, P. K., Rai, R. K., Alagarajan, M., & Singh, L. (2012). Determinants of maternity care services utilization among married adolescents in rural India. PLoS One, 7(2), e31666.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  164. Sinha, K. (2011). ‘70% can’t afford sanitary napkins, reveals study’, Times of India [online], retrieved from Times of India website http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/70-cant-afford-sanitary-napkins-reveals-study/articleshow/7344998.cms. Accessed on 1 Oct 2016.
  165. Sinha, S., & Modi, J. N. (2014). Psychosocial aspects of changes during adolescence among school going adolescent Indian girls. International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3(2), 409–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Sinha, S., Srivastava, J. P., Sachan, B., & Singh, R. B. (2017). A study of menstrual pattern and prevalence of dysmenorrhea during menstruation among school going adolescent girls in Lucknow district, Uttar Pradesh, India. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 3(5), 1200–1203.Google Scholar
  167. Sjöström, S., Essén, B., Sydén, F., Gemzell-Danielsson, K., & Klingberg-Allvin, M. (2014). Medical students’ attitudes and perceptions on abortion: A cross-sectional survey among medical interns in Maharastra, India. Contraception, 90(1), 42–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Sowmini, C. V. (2013). Delay in termination of pregnancy among unmarried adolescents and young women attending a tertiary hospital abortion clinic in Trivandrum, Kerala, India. Reproductive Health Matters, 21(41), 243–250.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Spandana, N., Reddy, K. M., & Giri, A. (2016). Teenage pregnancy – An unsafe journey towards the risky destiny. Journal of Medical Science and Clinical Research (E-ISSN 2347-176X; P-ISSN 2455–0450), 4(2), 9458–9462.Google Scholar
  170. Sudha, S., Morrison, S., & Zhu, L. (2007). Violence against women, symptom reporting, and treatment for reproductive tract infections in Kerala state, southern India. Health Care for Women International, 28(3), 268–284.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Sujay, R. (2009). Premarital sexual behaviour amongst unmarried college students of Gujarat, India (Health and Population Innovation Fellowship Programme Working Paper No. 9). New Delhi: Population Council.Google Scholar
  172. Talawar, S., & Venkatesh, G. (2013). Outcome of teenage pregnancy. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences, 6(6), 81–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS) and United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). (2015). Child marriage and early motherhood: Understanding from lived experiences of young people. Mumbai: TISS.Google Scholar
  174. Thakur, N. A., & Holambe, V. M. (2016). Determinants of pre-menarcheal knowledge of menstruation and sociocultural implications in college going girls: A community-based cross-sectional study from Latur, Maharashtra. Journal of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, 21(1), 30–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Thakur, H., Aronsson, A., Bansode, S., Lundborg, C. S., Dalvie, S., & Faxelid, E. (2014). Knowledge, practices, and restrictions related to menstruation among young women from low socioeconomic community in Mumbai, India. Frontiers in Public Health, 2, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Thapa, P., & Sivakami, M. (2017). Lost in transition: Menstrual experiences of intellectually disabled school-going adolescents in Delhi, India. Waterlines, 36(4), 317–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Toor, K. K. (2012). A study of the attitude of teachers, parents and adolescents towards sex education. MIER Journal of Educational Studies, Trends and Practices, 2(2), 177–189.Google Scholar
  178. Trikha, S. (2001). Abortion scenario of adolescents in a North India city--evidence from a recent study. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 26(1), 48–55.Google Scholar
  179. Tripathi, N., & Sekher, T. V. (2013). Youth in India ready for sex education? Emerging evidence from national surveys. PLoS One, 8(8), e71584.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  180. Tripathi, M., & Sherchand, A. (2014). Outcome of teenage pregnancy. Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences, 2(2), 11–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. UNICEF. (2012). Girls today women tomorrow. Research highlights on knowledge, attitudes, interpersonal communication and practice on menstrual hygiene. New Delhi: UNICEF.Google Scholar
  182. Upadhyay, C., Nayak, B., & Desai, G. (2018). Knowledge and attitude of menstruation hygiene, contraception and sexual transmitted disease among school girls of Lunawada, Mahisagar, Gujarat, India. International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 7(4), 1543–1547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Van Eijk, A. M., Sivakami, M., Thakkar, M. B., Bauman, A., Laserson, K. F., Coates, S., & Phillips-Howard, P. A. (2016). Menstrual hygiene management among adolescent girls in India: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open, 6(3), e010290.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  184. Varghese, M. M., James, S., Ravichandran, L., Sivaprakasam, E., Palaniyandi, A., & Balaji, S. (2015). Religious restrictions and cultural taboos related to menstruation in adolescent girls: A school-based cross-sectional observational study. Indian Journal of Child Health, 2(4), 161–164.Google Scholar
  185. Velhal, G., Kambli, T. D., & Suryawanshi, S. R. (2012). What do they know about HIV/AIDS-adolescents and young adults from slums in Mumbai, India? SAARC Journal of Tuberculosis, Lung Diseases and HIV/AIDS, 9(1), 26–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Verma, R. K., & Mahendra, V. S. (2005). Construction of masculinity in India: A gender and sexual health perspective. Journal of Family Welfare, 50(1), 71–78.Google Scholar
  187. Verma, R. K., Pulerwitz, J., Mahendra, V., Khandekar, S., Barker, G., Fulpagare, P., & Singh, S. K. (2006). Challenging and changing gender attitudes among young men in Mumbai, India. Reproductive Health Matters, 14(28), 135–143.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Verma, R., Pulerwitz, J., Mahendra, V. S., Khandekar, S., Singh, A. K., Das, S. S., & Barker, G. (2008). Promoting gender equity as a strategy to reduce HIV risk and gender-based violence among young men in India. Washington, DC: Population Council.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Verma, R., Sinha, T., & Khanna, T. (2013). Asia child marriage initiative: Summary of research in Bangladesh, India and Nepal. New Delhi: ICRW and Plan Asia.Google Scholar
  190. Verma, U. K., Nandan, D., & Shrotriya, V. P. (2016). A comparative study of knowledge and attitude regarding HIV/AIDS among male and female adolescents of urban slums of Agra. National Journal of Community Medicine, 7(2), 78–81.Google Scholar
  191. Yadav, S. B., Makwana, N. R., Vadera, B. N., Dhaduk, K. M., & Gandha, K. M. (2011). Awareness of HIV/AIDS among rural youth in India: A community based cross-sectional study. The Journal of infection in developing countries, 5(10), 711–716.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Zavier, A. J., & Jejeebhoy, S. J. (2015). Contraceptive use and intentions among unmarried and married young women undergoing abortion in Bihar and Jharkhand, India. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, 30(1), 51–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Health and Social Sciences, School of Health Systems StudiesTata Institute of Social SciencesMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.School of Health Systems StudiesTata Institute of Social SciencesMumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations