Advertisement

Brexit and Its Implications for the EU and Beyond

  • Chih-Mei LuoEmail author
Chapter
  • 183 Downloads

Abstract

On 23 January 2013, the then UK prime minister, David Cameron, announced in a speech that he would hold a referendum on EU membership if he got re-elected in the next general election. He indicated that, after 40 years, the European Union (EU) has been evolving from a common market that the UK voted to join in a direction that people did not sign up for. As a result, ‘domestic consent for the EU is wafer thin,…, and public disillusionment with the EU is at all time high’. It is then required to regain the public mandate for the UK’s EU membership (Cameron, 2013). In May 2015, the Conservative Party led by Cameron unexpectedly won the parliamentary majority, and the EU referendum became a reality. After successfully striking a deal through renegotiations with the EU on the new terms of the UK’s EU membership in February 2016, Cameron announced to hold an in/out referendum on 23 June 2016, in which‘[the British people will make] the biggest economic and political decision… in our lifetimes’ (Cameron, 2016; Cameron and Osborne, 2016).

References

I. Interviews and Replies to Questions

    Interviews with

    1. An anonymous senior EU official at Unit of Economic Affairs and Competitiveness of the Council of the European Union on 20 July 2016 in Taipei.Google Scholar
    2. Gomezmartos, Francisco, Head of the Unit of Relations with National Parliament of European Parliament on 9 May 2016 in Taipei.Google Scholar
    3. Reilly, Michael, the former Representative of the British Office Taipei (2006–2009) on 30 August 2016 in Taipei.Google Scholar
    4. Zielonka, Jan, Professor of European Politics at Oxford University, on 8 August 2016 in Taipei.Google Scholar

    Replies via Emailing from

    1. An anonymous senior EU official at Unit of European Civil Service and Social Dialogue of the European Commission received on 26 July 2016.Google Scholar
    2. An anonymous senior EU official at Unit of Directorate-general Communication and Document Management of the Council of the European Union received on 28 July 2016.Google Scholar
    3. Gomezmartos, Francisco, Head of the Unit of Relations with National Parliament of European Parliament received on 14 May 2016.Google Scholar

II. Official Publications

  1. Cameron, David (2013), ‘Prime Minister David Cameron discussed the future of the European Union at the Bloomberg’, Prime Minister’s Office, 23 January 2013, available at https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/eu-speech-at-bloomberg.
  2. ——— (2016), ‘PM statement following cabinet meeting on EU settlement’, Prime Minister’s Office, 20 February 2016, https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/pms-statement-following-cabinet-meeting-on-eu-settlement-20-february-2016.
  3. Carney, Mark (2016), ‘The spectre of Monetarism’, Speech by Mark Carney, the Governor of the Bank of England, 5 December 2016, http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/publications/Pages/speeches/2016/946.aspx (accessed 21 January 2017).
  4. European Commission (2014), Eurobarometer 40 Years: Effects of the Economic and Financial Crisis on European Public Opinion, Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  5. ——— (2016a), Standard Eurobarometer 85: Public Opinion in the European Union, Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  6. ——— (2016b), ‘EU-Canada summit: An historic juncture in our political and economic partnership’, Press Release on 30 October 2016.Google Scholar
  7. ——— (2016c), Standard Eurobarometer 86: Public Opinion in the European Union, Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  8. European Council (2016a), ‘The Bratislava Declaration’, Informal Meeting of the 27 Heads of State or Government, 16/09/2016, available at http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/meetings/european-council/2016/09/16-informal-meeting/.
  9. ——— (2016b), ‘Informal meeting at 27 Brussels Statement’, 29 June 2016, available at http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2016/06/29-27ms-informal-meeting-statement/.
  10. European Ombudsman (2017a), Letter from the Ombudsman to the President Juncker Concerning information for the Public on the Upcoming Negotiations aimed at reaching agreement on the UK’s Withdrawal from the EU, 28 February 2017, https://www.ombudsman.europa.eu/en/cases/correspondence.faces/en/76528/html.bookmark (accessed 5 April 2017).
  11. ——— (2017b), Letter from the Ombudsman to the Secretary-General of the Council of the EU concerning Public Information on the UK’s Withdrawal from the EU, 28 February 2017, https://www.ombudsman.europa.eu/cases/correspondence.faces/en/77306/html.bookmark (accessed 5 April 2017).
  12. G7 Ise-Shima Leaders’ Declaration, issued on G7 Ise-Shima Summit, 26–27 May 2016, available at http://www.mofa.go.jp/files/000160266.pdf.
  13. Hammond, Phillip (2016a), ‘Autumn Statement 2016: Phillip Hammond’s Speech’, House of Commons, 23 November 2016, available at https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/autumn-statement-2016-philip-hammonds-speech.
  14. IMF (2016), World Economic Outlook Update, Issued on 19 July 2016, Washington DC: IMF.Google Scholar
  15. Italian Ministry of Economy and Finance (2016), A Shared European Policy Strategy for Growth, Jobs and Stability, Rome: Ministry of Economy and Finance.Google Scholar
  16. Juncker, Jean-Claude (2016), ‘Sate of the Union Address 2016: Towards a better Europe – a Europe that protects, empowers and defends’, The Speech of the President of European Commission, 14 September 2016, available at http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_SPEECH-16-3043_en.htm.
  17. May, Theresa (2016), ‘PM speech to the Lord Mayor’s Banquet: 14 November 2016’, UK Prime Minister’s Office, 10 Downing Street, https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/pm-speech-to-the-lord-mayors-banquet-14-november-2016 (accessed 18 January 2017).
  18. OECD (2016), ‘The Economic Consequences of Brexit: A Taxing Decision’, OECD Economic Policy Paper No. 16, Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  19. The UK Electoral Commission (2016), ‘Official result of the EU referendum is declared by the Electoral Commission in Manchester’, available at http://www.electoralcommission.org.uk/i-am-a/journalist/electoral-commission-media-centre/news-releases-referendums/official-result-of-the-eu-referendum-is-declared-by-electoral-commission-in-manchester.
  20. Tsipras, Alexis and Antonio Costa (2016), Prime Minister Office of Portuguese Republic, Joint Statement of the Prime Ministers of Greece and Portugal, issued on 11 April 2016.Google Scholar
  21. United Nations (2016), ‘Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights hear from human rights institutions and civil society from the United Kingdom, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Angola’, 13 June 2016, available at http://www.ohchr.org/en/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=20087&LangID=E.

III. Books and Articles

  1. Baalen, Hans Van (2016), ‘Reform the EU, with or without Britain’, EU Observer, 20 June 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/opinion/133883.
  2. Baker, Gerard (2016), ‘Britain fires a loud shot that is heard round the world’, The Wall Street Journal, 27 June 2016, p. 3.Google Scholar
  3. Bale, Tim (2013), ‘Tory Euroscepticism: How did it come to this and where does it go from here’, Euroscope, 53: 12–13.Google Scholar
  4. Bailey, Olivia (2016), ‘Introduction’, in O. Bailey ed., Fabian Policy Report: Facing the Unknown, London: Fabian Society, pp. 2–3.Google Scholar
  5. Barr, Caelainn (2016), ‘The areas and demographics where the Brexit vote was won’, The Guardian, 24 June 2016, available at https://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2016/jun/24/the-areas-and-demographics-where-the-brexit-vote-was-won.
  6. Barysch, Katinka, and Carl Bildt (2016), ‘The big questions after the Brexit vote’, World Economic Forum Article, 24 June 2016, available at https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/06/the-big-questions-after-the-brexit-vote/.
  7. Benn, Hilary (2016), ‘Making the case for Britain in Europe’, 11 February 2016, Speech of UK Shadow Foreign Secretary at Chatham House, London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs.Google Scholar
  8. Blair, Tony, ‘Tony Blair: Brexit’s stunning coup’, The New York Times, 24 June 2016, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/26/opinion/tony-blair-brexits-stunning-coup.html?_r=0.
  9. Blanke, Jennifer (2016), ‘3 factors that could hold Europe together’, Research Paper of World Economic Forum, 27 June 2016, available at https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/06/after-brexit-why-europe-matters-and-what-it-must-do-to-survive/.
  10. Bohuslav Sobotka (2016), ‘Our common path: EU cohesion, not trenches’, EU Observer, 16 September 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/opinion/135121.
  11. Brown, Gordon (2016), ‘The key lesson of Brexit is that globalization must work for all of Britain’, The Guardian, 29 June 2016, available at https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/jun/29/key-lesson-of-brexit-globalisation-must-work-for-all-of-britain.
  12. Burn-Murdoch, John (2016), ‘The demographics that drove Brexit’, Financial Times, 24 June 2016, available at http://blogs.ft.com/ftdata/2016/06/24/brexit-demographic-divide-eu-referendum-results/#.
  13. Cadwalladr, Carole (2016), ‘View from Wales: town showered with EU cash vote to leave EU’, The Guardian, 25 June 2016, available at https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/jun/25/view-wales-town-showered-eu-cash-votes-leave-ebbw-vale.
  14. Cameron, David and George Osborne (2016), ‘David Cameron and George Osborne: Brexit would put our economy in serious danger’, The Telegraph, 22 May 2016, available at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/05/22/david-cameron-and-george-osborne-brexit-would-put-our-economy-in/.
  15. Civis Europaeus (2016), ‘How to save the EU’, EU Observer, 13 September 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/opinion/134935.
  16. Chowdhury, Hasan (2016), ‘How much impact has voter turnout had on the EU referendum result?’, New Statesman, 24 June 2016, available at http://www.newstatesman.com/print/node/302983.
  17. Creasy, Stella (2016), ‘Easing that sinking feeling’, The World Today, August and September 2016, pp. 20–1.Google Scholar
  18. Curtice, John (2016), How Deeply Does Britain’s Euroscepticism Run?, London: NatCen Social Research.Google Scholar
  19. Dunford, Daniel and Ashley Kirk (2016), ‘How did turnout affect EU referendum result?’, The Telegraph, 1 July 2016, available at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/06/24/how-did-turnout-affect-the-eu-referendum-result/.
  20. Eagle, Angela (2016), ‘We must see Brexit as the end of an era and commit to radically reshaping social democracy’, in O. Bailey ed., Fabian Policy Report: Facing the Unknown, London: Fabian Society, pp. 6–7.Google Scholar
  21. Erlanger, Steven (2016), ‘“Brexit” opens uncertain chapter in Britain’s storied history’, The New York Times, 24 June 2016, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/25/world/europe/brexit-european-union-uncertain-chapter-in-britains-storied-history.html?_r=0.
  22. Farvis, Dan (2016), ‘Britain can’t afford austerity’, The World Today, August & September 2016, p. 17.Google Scholar
  23. Fligstein, Neil, Alina Polyakova and Wayne Sandholtz (2012), ‘European integration, nationalism and European identity’, Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 50, No. S1, pp. 106–22.Google Scholar
  24. Fox, Ben (2016a), ‘Leach the poison from the political well’, EU Observer, 21 June 2016, https://euobserver.com/opinion/133912.
  25. ——— (2016b), ‘Young voters could keep UK in EU’, EU Observer, 10 June 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/uk-referendum/133787.
  26. ——— (2016c), ‘Brexit by accident’, Europe in Review 2016, December 2016, pp. 8–9.Google Scholar
  27. George, Stephen (1999), ‘Britain: Anatomy of a Eurosceptic state’, Journal of European Integration, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Glencross, Andrew (2014), ‘British euroscepticism as British exceptionalism: The Forty-Year “Neverendum” on the relationship with Europe’, Diplomatica, LXVII (4): 1–12.Google Scholar
  29. Goodwin, Matthew (2015), ‘Why a “Brexit” looms large’, Chatham House Research Paper, 22 September 2015, London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs.Google Scholar
  30. Goodwin, Matthew (2016), ‘Inequality not personalities drove Britain to Brexit’, Politico, 28 June 2016, available at http://www.politico.eu/article/inequality-not-personalities-drove-britain-to-brexit/.
  31. Goodwin, Matthew and Oliver Heath (2016), ‘The 2016 referendum, Brexit and the left behind: An aggregate-level analysis of the result’, The Political Quarterly, 87(3): 323–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Goodwin, Matthew and Caitlin Milazzo (2015), ‘Britain, the European Union and the referendum: What drives Euroscepticism?’, Chatham House Research Paper, 9 December 2015, London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs.Google Scholar
  33. Grant, C. (2008), ‘Why Is Britain Eurosceptic?’, Centre for European Reform Essays, available at https://www.cer.eu/publications/archive/essay/2008/why-britain-eurosceptic (accessed 11 May 2018).
  34. Hague, William (2016), Why a Eurosceptic should vote to Remain?, 6 June 2016, Speech of Lord Hague of Richmond at Chatham House, London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs.Google Scholar
  35. Hammond, Philip (2016b), What Do the Alternatives to EU Membership Look Like?, Speech of Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs of UK to Chatham House, 2 March 2016.Google Scholar
  36. Harding, Gareth (2016a), ‘Stumbling towards Brexit’, EU Observer, 17 May 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/opinion/133434 (accessed 7 March 2017).
  37. ——— (2016b), ‘Euroscepticism: The EU’s new normal’, 9 June 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/opinion/133747.
  38. Hawking, Stephen (2016), ‘Our attitude towards wealth played a crucial role in Brexit. We need a rethink’, The Guardian, 29 July 2016, available at https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/jul/29/stephen-hawking-brexit-wealth-resources.
  39. Hay, Colin (1999), The Political Economy of New Labour: Labour under False Pretences, Manchester and New York: Manchester Press.Google Scholar
  40. Heffernan, Richard (2001), New Labour and Thatcherism: Political Change in Britain, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  41. Hix, S. (2002), ‘Britain, the EU and the Euro’, in P. Dunleavy; A. Gamble, R.; R. Heffernan; I. Holliday, and G. Peele (eds.), Developments in British Politics, Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  42. Holmes, John (2016), ‘After the vote: Britain’s future in Europe’, Lord Garden Memorial Lecture to Chatham House Members, 4 July 2016 London.Google Scholar
  43. Ignacio-Torreblanca, Jose (2016), ‘Spain: What has Britain to moan about?’, April & May, The World Today, available at https://www.chathamhouse.org/publications/twt/spain-what-has-britain-moan-about.
  44. Ip, Greg (2016), ‘Impact on global economy depends on leaders’, The Wall Street Journal, 27 June 2016, p. 1 & 6.Google Scholar
  45. Jack, Ian (2016), ‘In this Brexit vote, the poor turned on an elite who ignored them’, The Guardian, 25 June 2016, available at https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/jun/25/brexit-vote-poor-elite.
  46. Jensen, M. Dagnis and Holly Snaith (2016), ‘When politics prevails: The political economy of a Brexit, Journal of European Public Policy, 23(9): 1302–1310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jones, Richard Wyn (2016), ‘Why did Wales shoot itself in the foot in this referendum?’, The Guardian, 27 June 2016, available at https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/jun/27/wales-referendum-remain-leave-vote-uk-eu-membership.
  48. Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2016), We Can Solve Poverty in the UK: A Strategy for Governments, Businesses, Communities and Citizens, York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.Google Scholar
  49. Kellner, Peter (2015), ‘Analysis: Why the UK might end up voting for Brexit’, Commentary of YouGov, 16 November 2015, available at https://yougov.co.uk/news/2015/11/16/why-uk-might-end-voting-brexit/.
  50. Kettle, Martin (2016), ‘Brexit was a revolt against liberalism. We’ve entered a new political era’, The Guardian, 15 September 2016, available at https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/sep/15/brexit-liberalism-post-liberal-age.
  51. Kroll, Daniela Annette and Dirk Leuffen (2016), ‘Ties that bind, can also strangle: The Brexit threat and the hardships of reforming the EU’, Journal of European Public Policy, 23(9): 1311–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lang, Florian (2016), ‘Stop the hysteria over Germany’s little election’, EU Observer, 7 September 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/opinion/134952.
  53. Letta, Enrico (2016), ‘The EU must relaunch or die’, The Word Today, August and September 2016, p. 24.Google Scholar
  54. Lord Ashcroft Polls (2016), ‘How the United Kingdom voted on Thursday…and why’, 24 June 2016, available at http://lordashcroftpolls.com/2016/06/how-the-united-kingdom-voted-and-why/.
  55. Leinen, Jo (2016), ‘Red lines for Brexit negotiations with the UK’, in O. Bailey ed., Fabian Policy Report: Facing the Unknown, London: Fabian Society, p. 27.Google Scholar
  56. Maasikas, Matti (2017), ‘How the EU can thrive in the time of Trump’, EU Observer, 9 January 2017, available at https://euobserver.com/opinion/136475 (accessed 19 January 2017).
  57. Maurice, Eric (2016), ‘EU legitimacy in question’, Europe in Review 2016, December 2016, pp. 20–1.Google Scholar
  58. McKinsey Global Institute (2016), Poorer than Their Parents? Flat or Falling Incomes in Advanced Economies, New York: McKinsey Global Institute.Google Scholar
  59. Menon, Anand and John-Paul Salter (2016), ‘Brexit: initial reflections’, International Affairs, 92(6): 1297–1318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Moore, James, (2016), ‘What President Trump’s victory means for the most important trade deal in the world’, The Independent, 9 November 2016, available at http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/us-elections/donald-trump-president-wins-live-results-us-election-ttip-trade-deal-hillary-clinton-loses-a7394611.html.
  61. Moore, Luke (2015), ‘What explains euroscepticism in the Conservative Party’, OXPOL, November 2015, available at http://blog.politics.ox.ac.uk/what-explains-euroscepticism-in-the-conservative-party/.
  62. Munich Security Conference (2017), Munich Security Report 2017: Post-Truth, Post-West, Post-Order?, Munich: Munich Security Conference.Google Scholar
  63. Nelson, Fraser (2016), ‘A very British revolution’, The Wall Street Journal, 27 June 2016, pp. 8–9.Google Scholar
  64. Niblett, Robin (2016a), ‘Brexit: The reality’, Chatham House Research Paper, 24 June 2016, London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs.Google Scholar
  65. ——— (2016b), ‘Britain, the EU and the sovereignty myth’, Chatham House Research Paper, May 2016, London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs.Google Scholar
  66. ——— (2017), ‘Liberalism in retreat: The demise of a dream’, Foreign Affairs, January/February Issue, https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2016-12-12/liberalism-retreat (accessed 19 January 2017).
  67. O’Hagan, Ellie Mae (2016), ‘Wales voted for Brexit because it has been ignored by Westminster for too long’, The Independent, 25 June 2016, available at http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/brexit-wales-eu-referendum-vote-leave-uk-ignored-by-westminster-a7102551.html.
  68. Oliver, Tim (2015), ‘To be or not to be in Europe: Is that the question? Britain’s European question and an in/out referendum’, International Affairs, 91 (1): 77–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. ——— (2016), ‘European and international views of Brexit’, Journal of European Public Policy, 23(9): 1321–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Olivet, Cecilia (2016), ‘Wallonia’s historic stand against Ceta is a stand for democracy’, EU Observer, 28 October 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/opinion/135706.
  71. Ostry, J. D., P. Loungani and D. Furceri (2016), ‘Neoliberalism: Oversold?’, Finance and Development, 53(2): 38–41.Google Scholar
  72. Papadimoulis, Dimitris (2017), ‘New model needed to save EU’, 30 March 2017, https://euobserver.com/opinion/137431 (accessed 5 April 2017).
  73. Parakilas, Jacob and Xenia Wickett (2016), ‘Does Brexit mean the future is President Trump?’, Chatham House Expert Comment, available at http://www.chathamhouse.org/expert/comment/does-brexit-mean-future-president-trump (accessed 17 May 2018).
  74. Pew Research Center (2016), Euroskepticism Beyond Brexit: Significant Opposition in Key European Countries to An Ever Closer EU, Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
  75. Prouza, Tomas (2016), ‘Lessons for central Europe: We need more unity and less inequality’, in O. Bailey ed., Fabian Policy Report: Facing the Unknown, London: Fabian Society, p. 28.Google Scholar
  76. Raines, Thomas (2013), ‘Britain’s EU future: Cameron’s gambit’, Chatham House Research Paper, 25 January 2013, London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs.Google Scholar
  77. ——— (2016a), ‘Britain’s vote will test the limits of the EU experiment’, Chatham House Research Paper, 21 June 2016, London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs.Google Scholar
  78. ——— (2016b), ‘Tusk’s artful compromise could save Cameron in EU referendum’, Chatham House Research Paper, 4 February 2016, London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs.Google Scholar
  79. ——— (2016c), ‘What do our neighbours think?’, The World Today, April & May 2016, p. 14.Google Scholar
  80. Reeves, Rachel (2016), ‘We must see the result as a rejection to the economic status quo, and use the opportunity to build a fairer and more inclusive economy’, in O. Bailey ed., Fabian Policy Report: Facing the Unknown, London: Fabian Society, pp. 17–8.Google Scholar
  81. Reynolds, Emma (2016), ‘We must accept the referendum’s outcome and secure the best possible deal’, O. Bailey ed., Fabian Policy Report: Facing the Unknown, London: Fabian Society, pp. 23–4.Google Scholar
  82. Rodgers, Daniel T. (2016), ‘Will angry politics and bitter voters floor the US?’, Chatham House Research Paper, London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs.Google Scholar
  83. Schneider-Petsinger, Marianne (2016), ‘Inequality defines the American election’, Chatham House Research Paper, 20 October 2016, London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs.Google Scholar
  84. Scully, Roger (2016), ‘EU referendum: Crunching the numbers on Brexit vote’, BBC, 25 June 2016, available at http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-eu-referendum-36625433.
  85. Singh, Matt (2016), ‘The 2.8 million non-voters who delivered Brexit’, Bloomberg View, 4 July 2016, available at https://www.bloomberg.com/view/articles/2016-07-04/the-2-8-million-non-voters-who-delivered-brexit.
  86. Speed, Barbara (2016), ‘How did different demographic group vote in the EU referendum?’, New Statesman, 24 June 2016, available at http://www.newstatesman.com/politics/staggers/2016/06/how-did-different-demographic-groups-vote-eu-referendum.
  87. Taylor, Adrian (2016), ‘How to reinvent the EU in the age of populism’, EU Observer, 14 December 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/opinion/136256.
  88. Thielemann, Eiko and Daniel Schade (2016), ‘Buying into myths: free movement of people’, The Political Quarterly, 87(2): 139–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. University Vice Chancellors, ‘EU referendum: An open letter to UK voters from leaders of 103 British universities’, The Independent, 21 June 2016, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/eu-referendum-an-open-letter-to-uk-voters-from-leaders-of-96-british-universities-a7092511.html (accessed 26 July 2016).
  90. Vasilopoulou, Sofia (2016), ‘UK euroscepticism and the Brexit referendum’, The Political Quarterly, 87(2): 219–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wall, Stephen (2012), The Official History of Britain and the European Community, Volume II: From Rejection to Referendum, 1963–1975, Routledge: Abingdon.Google Scholar
  92. Waldman, Matt (2016), ‘Trump and Brexit: The cost of failure to empathize’, Chatham House Research Paper, 24 November 2016, https://www.chathamhouse.org/expert/comment/trump-and-brexit-cost-failure-empathize (accessed 18 January 2017).
  93. Wales Governance Centre (2016), Wales and the EU Referendum: Estimating Wales’ Net Contribution to the European Union, Cardiff: Wales Governance Centre at Cardiff University.Google Scholar
  94. Warner, G. (2002), “Why the general said no’, International Affairs, Vol. 78, No. 4, pp. 869–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Whitman, Richard G. (2016a), ‘The EEA: A safe harbour in the Brexit storm’, Chatham House Research Paper, 27 June 2016, London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs.Google Scholar
  96. ——— (2016b), ‘Brexit or Bremain: What future for the UK’s European diplomatic strategy?’, International Affairs, 92(3): 509–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. ——— (2016c), ‘After the “Leave” vote: The UK’s European Year Zero’, Chatham House Research Paper, 10 March 2016, London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs.Google Scholar
  98. Williams, Zoe (2016a), ‘Think the north and the poor caused Brexit? Think again’, The Guardian, 7 August 2016, available at https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/aug/07/north-poor-brexit-myths.
  99. ——— (2016b), ‘These aren’t hard Brexiters. They’re political extremists’, The Guardian, 16 October 2016, available at https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/oct/16/hard-brexiters-political-extremists-boris-johnson-cabinet.
  100. Williamson, David (2016), ‘Is Wales now a Eurosceptic national that’s heading for the EU exit door?’ The WalesOnline, 15 February 2016, available at http://www.walesonline.co.uk/news/politics/wales-now-eurosceptic-nation-thats-10894382.
  101. World Economic Forum (2017), The Global Risks Report 2017, Switzerland: The World Economic Forum.Google Scholar
  102. Wright, Iain (2016), ‘We must reaffirm and reset employment protection to make clear our position as the workers’ party’, in O. Bailey ed., Fabian Policy Report: Facing the Unknown, London: Fabian Society, pp. 19–20.Google Scholar
  103. Zalan, Eszter (2016), ‘EU must protect its citizens’, EU Observer, 2 August 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/institutional/134546.

IV. Media Consulted

  1. Asia Times, ‘Xi warns BRICS summit of globalization backlash’, 16 October 2016, available at http://www.atimes.com/article/xi-warns-brics-summit-globalization-backlash/.
  2. Associated Press (2016), ‘Trade chief: protectionism is not the answer to job losses’, 7 November 2016, available at http://bigstory.ap.org/article/3c288a658ab84c989d1a644335a936d1/trade-chief-protectionism-not-answer-job-losses.
  3. BBC (2016a), ‘EU deal: A hard-headed calculation to avoid Brexit’, 20 February 2016, available at http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-eu-referendum-35620434.
  4. ——— (2016b), ‘EU deal gives UK special status, says David Cameron’, 20 February 2016, available at http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-35616768.
  5. ——— (2016c), ‘EU referendum: Australian would welcome In vote, says PM Turnbull’, 1 May 2016, available at http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-eu-referendum-36183444.
  6. ——— (2016d), ‘EU referendum: The result in maps and charts’, 24 June 2016, available at http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-36616028.
  7. ——— (2016e), ‘EU referendum: Welsh voters back Brexit’, 24 June 2016, available at http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-eu-referendum-36612308.
  8. ——— (2016f), ‘Theresa May: I’ll use power of state to build fairer Britain’, 5 October 2016, available at http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-37556019.
  9. CBC (2016), ‘Trudeau makes ‘no bones’ about his wish for Britain to remain in EU in eve of referendum’, 22 June 2016, available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/brexit-trudeau-remain-vote-1.3647807.
  10. DW (2016), ‘EU Commission: CETA should be approved by national parliaments’, 5 July 2016, available at http://www.dw.com/en/eu-commission-ceta-should-be-approved-by-national-parliaments/a-19379263.
  11. Euronews (2016), ‘Portugal’s PM: Failing to regulate globalization a “great failure” of the EU’, 17 November 2016, http://www.euronews.com/2016/11/17/failing-to-regulate-globalisation-is-a-great-failure-of-the-european-union (accessed 18 January 2017).
  12. EU Observer (2016a), ‘EU-UK deal reached in marathon talks’, 9 February 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/political/132367.
  13. ——— (2016b), ‘Lords: Cameron should convey positive Yes message’, 31 March 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/political/132851.
  14. ——— (2016c), ‘Cox murder leaves UK in shock, ugly EU campaign blamed’, 17 June 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/political/133868.
  15. ——— (2016d), ‘Cameron pleads with voters to stay in EU’, 21 June 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/uk-referendum/133929.
  16. ——— (2016e), ‘Cameron in final push, as polls show pro-EU swing’, 20 June 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/uk-referendum/133892.
  17. ——— (2016f), ‘In and Out camps present Brexit scenarios’, 15 June 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/uk-referendum/133835.
  18. ——— (2016g), ‘No EU plan for Brexit, Eurogroup chief says’, 2 June 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/institutional/133682.
  19. ——— (2016h), ‘Cameron warns of Brexit “madness”’, 3 June 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/political/133689.
  20. ——— (2016i), ‘Wider Europe shares Cameron’s EU vision’, 7 June 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/news/133723.
  21. ——— (2016j), ‘Tusk: Brexit would “change Europe” for the worse’, 25 February 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/tickers/132441.
  22. ——— (2016k), ‘Obama: Brexit does not mean end of the EU’, 8 July 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/foreign/134263.
  23. ——— (2016l), ‘Poll: Majority of Dutch want EU membership referendum’, 23 February 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/tickers/132401.
  24. ——— (2016m), ‘More Danes want referendum on EU membership’, 8 June 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/institutional/133738.
  25. ——— (2016n), ‘French and Italians want UK-type votes on EU’, 9 May 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/political/133367.
  26. ——— (2016o), ‘EU wonders how to win back people’s trust’, 25 July 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/eu-presidency/134483.
  27. ——— (2016p), ‘Fico: EU leaders need to overcome fear’, 6 July 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/news/134226.
  28. ——— (2016q), ‘EU states must act on youth poverty’, 29 August 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/education/134788.
  29. ——— (2016r), ‘Eastern bloc wants fewer EU powers, more security’, 26 August 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/news/134775.
  30. ——— (2016s), ‘Tspiras hopes “Club Med” to soften EU austerity’, 9 September 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/economic/134995.
  31. ——— (2016t), ‘EU 27 meet for “moment of truth”’, 16 September 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/political/135123.
  32. ——— (2016u), ‘EU admits “unrealistic” to close TTIP deal this year’, 23 September 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/economic/135217.
  33. ——— (2016v), ‘Uncertainty stalks EU trade deals with US and Canada’, 18 July 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/economic/134385.
  34. ——— (2016w), ‘Kerry to promote free-trade deal on EU tour’, 18 July 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/economic/134395.
  35. ——— (2016x), ‘Ceta failure deepens EU trade crisis’, 21 October 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/economic/135609.
  36. ——— (2016y), ‘Belgium breaks Ceta deadlock’, 27 October 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/economic/135694.
  37. ——— (2016z), ‘Belgium green lights unchanged Ceta’, 28 October 2016, available at https://euobserver.com/economic/135717.
  38. ——— (2017), ‘Transparency is key EU tactic in Brexit talks’, 30 March 2017, available at https://euobserver.com/uk-referendum/137444.
  39. Financial Times (2016), ‘France urges Brussels to halt TTIP talks’, 30 August 2016, available at https://www.ft.com/content/154ecba2-6e82-11e6-a0c9-1365ce54b926.
  40. International Business Times, ‘EU referendum: Nissan to initiate legal proceedings against Vote Leave campaign’, 20 June 2016, available at http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/eu-referendum-nissan-initiate-legal-proceedings-against-vote-leave-campaign-1566521#.
  41. Politico (2016a), ‘Angela Merkel: Brexit could be “turning point” for EU’, 26 August 2016, available at http://www.politico.eu/article/angela-merkel-brexit-breaking-point-warsaw-visegrad-referendum-uk-consequences/.
  42. ——— (2016b), ‘How Brexit will change the world’, 25 June 2016, available at http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2016/06/brexit-change-europe-britain-us-politics-213990.
  43. Reuters (2016a), ‘Theresa May pitches Brexit ‘quiet revolution’ to turn Britain’s course’, 7 October 2016, available at http://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-britain-politics-idUKKCN1261ZG.
  44. ——— (2016b), ‘EU needs migration policy, must stop blame game: EU leaders’ chairman’, 18 September 2016, available at http://www.reuters.com/article/us-europe-migrants-tusk-idUSKCN0RI27J20150918.
  45. ——— (2016c), ‘Thousands protest TTIP, CETA deals in France, Poland, & Spain as EU vote looms closer’, 15 October 2016, available at https://www.rt.com/news/362907-poland-france-protest-ceta/.
  46. The Economist (2014), ‘Why Britain is so Eurosceptic’, 3 March 2014, available at http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2014/03/economist-explains-1.
  47. The Economist (2016a), ‘The roots of Euroscepticism’, 12 March 2016, available at http://www.economist.com/news/britain/21694557-why-britons-are-warier-other-europeans-eu-roots-euroscepticism.
  48. ——— (2016b), ‘Explaining the Brexit vote’, 16 July 2016, available at http://www.economist.com/news/britain/21702228-areas-lots-migrants-voted-mainly-remain-or-did-they-explaining-brexit-vote.
  49. ——— (2016c), ‘Why Brexit is grim news for the world economy’, 24 June 2016, available at http://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21701292-uncertainty-abounds-expect-global-chilling-effect-investment-why-brexit.
  50. The Guardian (2016a), ‘EU referendum: Youth turnout almost twice as high as first thought’, 10 July 2016, available at https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2016/jul/09/young-people-referendum-turnout-brexit-twice-as-high.
  51. ——— (2016b), ‘Brexit vote was rejection of economic status quo, says Jeremy Corbyn’, 15 September 2016, available at https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2016/sep/15/brexit-vote-was-rejection-of-economic-status-quo-says-jeremy-corbyn.
  52. ——— (2016c), ‘Nick Clegg: Parliament must vote on terms of deal to leave EU’, 27 July 2016, available at https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2016/jul/27/nick-clegg-parliament-vote-terms-deal-leave-eu-brexit.
  53. ——— (2016d), ‘How the pollsters got it wrong on the EU referendum’, 24 June 2016, available at https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2016/jun/24/how-eu-referendum-pollsters-wrong-opinion-predict-close.
  54. ——— (2016e), ‘How the pollsters got it wrong on the EU referendum’, 24 June 2016, available at https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2016/jun/24/how-eu-referendum-pollsters-wrong-opinion-predict-close.
  55. ——— (2016f), ‘Brexit weekly briefing: Splits over timing of talks and single market membership’, 30 August 2016, available at https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2016/aug/30/brexit-weekly-briefing-splits-over-timing-of-talks-and-single-market-membership.
  56. ——— (2016g), ‘Bratislava summit: EU is at critical point, says Angela Merkel’, 16 September 2016, available at https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/sep/16/bratislava-summit-donald-tusk-urges-eu-leaders-not-to-waste-brexit-crisis.
  57. ——— (2016h), ‘Hard Brexit will cost City of London its hub status, warns Bundesbank boss’, 19 September 2016, available at https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/sep/18/hard-brexit-will-cost-city-of-london-its-hub-status-warns-bundesbank-boss.
  58. ——— (2016i), ‘Brexit weekly briefing: Is Canada’s EU trade deal a blueprint for the UK?’, 23 August 2016, available at https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2016/aug/23/brexit-weekly-briefing-is-canadas-eu-trade-deal-a-blueprint-for-the-uk.
  59. The Independent (2016a), ‘What is Brexit and why are we having an EU referendum?’, 24 June 2016, available at http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/what-is-brexit-why-is-there-an-eu-referendum-a7042791.html.
  60. ——— (2016b), ‘Brexit would cause “shock to the world economy”, G20 leaders tell George Osborne’, 28 February 2016, available at http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/brexit-would-cause-shock-to-the-world-economy-g20-leaders-tell-george-osborne-a6900036.html.
  61. ——— (2016c), ‘EU referendum letter: 1280 business leaders sign letter backing Remain’, 23 June 2016, available at http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/eu-referendum-brexit-letter-remain-barclays-anglo-american-a7094811.html.
  62. ——— (2016d), ‘EU referendum: workers’ rights will be watered downed if Britain leaves the EU, claims TUC’, 3 May 2016, available at http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/workers-rights-will-be-watered-down-if-britain-leaves-eu-claims-tuc-a7010381.html.
  63. ——— (2016e), ‘Jeremy Corbyn faces calls to resign from Labour MPs over disastrous referendum campaign’, 24 June 2016, available at http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/jeremy-corbyn-resign-brexit-eu-referendum-labour-leader-a7100446.html.
  64. ——— (2016f), ‘Wales has changed its minds over Brexit and would now vote to stay in the EU, poll finds’, 5 July 2016, available at http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/wales-has-changed-its-mind-over-brexit-and-would-now-vote-to-stay-in-the-eu-poll-finds-a7120246.html.
  65. The New York Times (2016a), ‘The Brexit spillover’, 28 June 2016, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/28/opinion/the-brexit-spillover.html.
  66. ——— (2016b), ‘“Brexit”: Explaining Britain’s vote on European Union membership’, 21 June 2016, available at http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/world/europe/britain-european-union-brexit.html?_r=0.
  67. ——— (2016c), ‘Editorial board: Britain leaves on a cry of anger and frustration’, 24 June 2016, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/25/opinion/britain-leaves-on-a-cry-of-anger-and-frustration.html.
  68. The Telegraph (2016), ‘EU referendum: Nato chiefs warn Brexit will “give succour to the West’s enemies”’, 20 June 2016, available at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/05/09/eu-referendum-nato-chiefs-warn-brexit-will-give-succour-to-the-w/.
  69. The Wall Street Journal, ‘IMF issues fresh warning on “Brexit” consequences’, 17 June 2016, http://www.wsj.com/articles/imf-issues-fresh-warning-on-brexit-consequences-1466204404.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Public Administration and PolicyNational Taipei UniversityNew Taipei CityTaiwan

Personalised recommendations