Advertisement

A Framework for the Reliability Evaluation of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems in the Presence of Intermittent Faults

  • Baoping CaiEmail author
  • Yonghong Liu
  • Zengkai Liu
  • Yuanjiang Chang
  • Lei Jiang
Chapter

Abstract

A framework for the reliability evaluation of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with intermittent faults is proposed using dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs). A three-state Markov model is constructed to represent the state transition relationship of no faults, intermittent faults, and permanent faults for PV components. The model is subsequently fused into the DBNs. The reliability and availability of three simple PV systems with centralized, string, and multistring configurations, as well as a complex PV system, are analyzed through the proposed framework. The sequence of the degree of importance of PV components is investigated using mutual information. The effects of intermittent fault parameters, including the coefficients of intermittent fault, permanent fault, and intermittent repair, on the reliability and availability are explored. Results show that the reliability and availability of the PV system with centralized configuration rapidly decrease, compared with those of the PV systems with string and multistring configurations. The sequence of the degree of importance of PV components is DC/AC inverter, DC/DC converter, DC combiner, and PV module arranged from the largest to the smallest. The finding indicates that the DC/AC inverter should be given considerable attention to improve the reliability and availability and to prevent their possible failures.

Keywords

Dynamic bayesian networks Reliability evaluation Intermittent faults Photovoltaic systems 

References

  1. 1.
    G.G. Pillai, G.A. Putrus, T. Georgitsioti, N.M. Pearsall, Near-term economic benefits from grid-connected residential PV (photovoltaic) systems. Energy 68, 832–843 (2014)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    K.Y. Lau, C.W. Tan, A.H.M. Yatim, Photovoltaic systems for Malaysian islands, Effects of interest rates, diesel prices and load sizes. Energy 83, 204–216 (2015)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R.A. Mastromauro, M. Liserre, A. Dell’Aquila, Control issues in single-stage photovoltaic systems: MPPT, current and voltage control. IEEE Trans. Ind. Inf. 8(2), 241–254 (2012)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    E. Koutroulis, F. Blaabjerg, Design optimization of transformerless grid-connected PV inverters including reliability. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 28(1), 325–335 (2013)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. Petrone, G. Spagnuolo, R. Teodorescu, M. Veerachary, M. Vitelli, Reliability issues in photovoltaic power processing systems. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 55(7), 2569–2580 (2008)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. Zhang, W. Li, S. Li, Y. Wang, W. Xiao, Reliability assessment of photovoltaic power systems: Review of current status and future perspectives. Appl. Energy 104, 822–833 (2013)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    V. Sharma, S.S. Chandel, Performance and degradation analysis for long term reliability of solar photovoltaic systems: A review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 27, 753–767 (2013)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    N.K. Gautam, N.D. Kaushika, Reliability evaluation of solar photovoltaic arrays. Sol. Energy 72(2), 129–141 (2002)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. Urbina, T.L. Paez, C. O’Gorman, P. Barney, R.G. Jungst, D. Ingersoll, Reliability of rechargeable batteries in a photovoltaic power supply system. J. Power Sources 80(1–2), 30–38 (1999)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    W.M. Rohouma, I.M. Molokhia, A.H. Esuri, Comparative study of different PV modules configuration reliability. Desalination 209(1–3), 122–128 (2007)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    P.S. Shenoy, K.A. Kim, B.B. Johnson, P.T. Krein, Differential power processing for increased energy production and reliability of photovoltaic systems. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 28(6), 2968–2979 (2013)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    F. Chan, H. Calleja, Design strategy to optimize the reliability of grid-connected PV systems. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 56(11), 4465–4472 (2009)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    R.M. Moharil, P.S. Kulkarni, Reliability analysis of solar photovoltaic system using hourly mean solar radiation data. Sol. Energy 84(4), 691–702 (2010)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Q. Zhao, P. Wang, L. Goel, Y. Ding, Evaluation of nodal reliability risk in a deregulated power system with photovoltaic power penetration. IET Gener. Transm. Distrib. 8(3), 421–430 (2014)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Z. Qin, W. Li, X. Xiong, Incorporating multiple correlations among wind speeds, photovoltaic powers and bus loads in composite system reliability evaluation. Appl. Energy 110, 285–294 (2013)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Harb, R.S. Balog, Reliability of candidate photovoltaic module-integrated-inverter (PV-MII) topologies—A usage model approach. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 28(6), 3091–3097 (2013)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    P. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Xiao, W. Li, Reliability evaluation of grid-connected photovoltaic power systems. IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy 3(3), 379–389 (2012)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Y.A. Katsigiannis, P.S. Georgilakis, G.J. Tsinarakis, A novel colored fluid stochastic Petri net simulation model for reliability evaluation of wind PV diesel small isolated power systems. IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern. A, Syst., Humans 40(6), 1296–1309 (2010)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    G. Zini, C. Mangeant, J. Merten, Reliability of large-scale grid-connected photovoltaic systems. Renew. Energy 36(9), 2334–2340 (2011)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. Ahadi, N. Ghadimi, D. Mirabbasi, Reliability assessment for components of large scale photovoltaic systems. J. Power Sources 264, 211–219 (2014)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    S.V. Dhople, A.D. Domínguez-García, Estimation of photovoltaic system reliability and performance metrics. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 27(1), 554–563 (2012)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Theristis, I.A. Papazoglou, Markovian reliability analysis of standalone photovoltaic systems incorporating repairs. IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(1), 414–422 (2014)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    S.V. Dhople, A. Davoudi, A.D. Dominguez-Garcia, P.L. Chapman, A unified approach to reliability assessment of multiphase DC–DC converters in photovoltaic energy conversion systems. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 27(2), 739–751 (2012)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    H. Qi, S. Ganesan, M. Pecht, No-fault-found and intermittent failures in electronic products. Microelectron. Reliab. 48(5), 663–674 (2008)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    V.B. Prasad, Computer networks reliability evaluations and intermittent faults, in Proceedings of the 33rd Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, vol. 1, pp. 327–330, Calgary, Alta, Aug. 12–14, 1990Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    V.B. Prasad, Markovian model for the evaluation of reliability of computer networks with intermittent faults, in IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, vol. 4, pp. 2084–2087, Jun. 11–14, 1991Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    C.S. Cheng, Y.T. Hsu, C.C. Wu, An improved neural network realization for reliability analysis. Microelectron. Reliab. 38(3), 345–352 (1998)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. Habib, R. Alsieidi, G. Youssef, Reliability analysis of a consecutive r-out-of-n: F system based on neural networks. Chaos, Solitons Fractals 39(2), 610–624 (2009)MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    C. Constantinescu, Dependability evaluation of a fault-tolerant processor by GSPN modeling. IEEE Trans. Reliab. 53(3), 468–474 (2005)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    P. Morris, D. Vine, L. Buys, Application of a Bayesian Network complex system model to a successful community electricity demand reduction program. Energy 84, 63–74 (2015)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. Pearl, Probabilistic reasoning in intelligent systems: networks of plausible inference (Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., San Francisco, CA, 1988)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    B. Cai, Y. Liu, Y. Ma, Z. Liu, Y. Zhou, J. Sun, Real-time reliability evaluation methodology based on dynamic Bayesian networks, a case study of a subsea pipe ram BOP system. ISA Trans. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2015.06.011
  33. 33.
    B. Cai, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, Q. Fan, S. Yu, Dynamic Bayesian networks based performance evaluation of subsea blowout preventers in presence of imperfect repair. Expert Sys. Appl. 40(18), 7544–7554 (2013)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    B. Cai, Y. Liu n, Q. Fan, Y. Zhang, S. Yu,Z. Liu, and X. Dong, Performance evaluation of subsea BOP control systems using dynamic Bayesian networks with imperfect repair and preventive maintenance. Eng. Appl. Artif. Intell. 26(10), 2661–2672 (2013)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    E. Romoro-Cadaval, G. Spagnuolo, L.G. Franquelo, C. Ramos-Paja, T. Suntio, W. Xiao, Grid-connected photovoltaic generation plants, components and operation. IEEE Ind. Electron. Mag. 7(7), 6–20 (2013)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    A. Arabkoohsar, L. Machado, M. Farzaneh-Gord, R.N.N. Koury, The first and second law analysis of a grid connected photovoltaic plant equipped with a compressed air energy storage unit. Energy 87, 520–539 (2015)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    E.M. Saber, S.E. Lee, S. Manthapuri, W. Yi, C. Deb, PV (photovoltaics) performance evaluation and simulation-based energy yield prediction for tropical buildings. Energy 71, 588–595 (2015)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    G.S. Seo, J.W. Shin, B.H. Cho, K.C. Lee, Digitally controlled current sensorless photovoltaic micro-converter for DC distribution. IEEE Trans. Ind. Inf. 10(1), 117–126 (2014)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    B. Liu., S. Duan, T. Cai, Photovoltaic DC-building-module-based BIPV system—concept and design considerations. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 26(5), 1418–1429 (2011)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    A.M. Pavan, A. Mellit, D.D. Pieri, S.A. Kalogirou, A comparison between BNN and regression polynomial methods for the evaluation of the effect of soiling in large scale photovoltaic plants. Appl. Energy 108, 392–401 (2013)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    M. Tanrioven, Reliability and cost-benefits of adding alternate power sources to an independent micro-grid community. J. Power Sources 150, 136–149 (2005)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    E. Román, R. Alonso, P. Ibañez, S. Elorduizapatarietxe, D. Goitia, Intelligent PV module for grid-connected PV systems. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 53(4), 1066–1073 (2006)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    C. Paravalos, E. Koutroulis, V. Samoladas, T. Kerekes, D. Sera, R. Teodorescu, Optimal design of photovoltaic systems using high time-resolution meteorological data. IEEE Trans. Ind. Inf.  https://doi.org/10.1109/tii.2014.2322814Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    S.B. Kjaer, J.K. Pedersen, F. Blaabjerg, A review of single-phase grid-connected inverters for photovoltaic modules. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 41(5), 1292–1306 (2005)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    H. Wang, F. Blaabjerg, Reliability of capacitors for DC-link applications in power electronic converters—an overview. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 50(5), 3569–3578 (2014)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Z. Liu, Y. Liu, D. Zhang, B. Cai, C. Zheng, Fault diagnosis for a solar assisted heat pump system under incomplete data and expert knowledge. Energy 87, 41–48 (2015)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    B.P. Cai, Y.H. Liu, Z.K. Liu, X.J. Tian, Y.Z. Zhang, J. Liu, Performance evaluation of subsea blowout preventer systems with common-cause failures. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 90–91, 18–25 (2012)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    B.P. Cai, Y.H. Liu, Z.K. Liu, X.J. Tian, H. Li, C.K. Ren, Reliability analysis of subsea blowout preventer control systems subjected to multiple error shocks. J. Loss Prev. Process Ind. 25(6), 1044–1054 (2012)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Y.L. Liu, M. Rausand, Reliability assessment of safety instrumented systems subject to different demand modes. J. Loss Prev. Process Ind. 24(1), 49–56 (2011)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    A. Khatab, N. Nahas, M. Nourelfath, Availability of K-out-of-N: G systems with non-identical components subject to repair priorities. Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf. 94(2), 142–151 (2009)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    T. Kohda, W. Cui, Risk-based reconfiguration of safety monitoring system using dynamic Bayesian network. Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf. 92, 1716–1723 (2007)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    B. Jones, I. Jenkinson, Z. Yang, J. Wang, The use of Bayesian network modelling for maintenance planning in a manufacturing industry. Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf. 95(3), 267–277 (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Baoping Cai
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yonghong Liu
    • 1
  • Zengkai Liu
    • 1
  • Yuanjiang Chang
    • 1
  • Lei Jiang
    • 2
  1. 1.China University of PetroleumQingdaoChina
  2. 2.Southwest Jiaotong UniversityChengduChina

Personalised recommendations