Short-Term Versus Long-Term Effects of Forced Displacement

  • Sayak Khatua
  • Vengadeshvaran Sarma


This study focuses on the conceptual frameworks and empirical evidence that underscore forced displacement. In particular, the study explores development-induced displacement and summarises evidence of its short-term and long-terms effects from around the developing world. Evidence in the literature points out to adverse short-term effects among displacees that normalise over the long run. In the short term, adverse psychological, income and cultural factors affect individual and family security and tend to make displacees worse off compared to non-displaced households. In the long term, however, adaptability among displacees and state mechanisms may help displacees normalise and settle down especially if adequate compensation policies are sanctioned.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sayak Khatua
    • 1
  • Vengadeshvaran Sarma
    • 2
  1. 1.International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie)New DelhiIndia
  2. 2.University of NottinghamSemenyihMalaysia

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