Strengthening Relational Ties and Building Loyalty Through Relational Innovation and Technology: Evidence from Spanish Hotel Guests



Smart tourism relies on the ability to collect enormous amounts of data and intelligently store, process, combine, analyse and use big data to inform business innovation, operations and services. Companies are becoming aware of the potential of analytics and big data and the need to invest in technology to remain competitive. Most of the research on big data, technology and innovation in tourism focuses on the firm’s perspective, paying scanty attention to customers’ perceptions. The present chapter aims to analyse the impact of hotel relational innovation and technology on brand equity and hotel-guest relational ties and customer loyalty. This objective has been pursued in quantitative research through personal interviews with Spanish guests of 3, 4 and 5-star hotels in the Valencia region, one of the top holiday destinations in Spain. The sample of 401 guests at 42 hotels provides evidence to suggest a significant positive impact of relational innovation on guest perceptions of hotel technology and strength of relational ties. Moreover, information and communication technologies exert a positive impact on overall brand equity which, in turn, has a positive impact on relational ties and guest loyalty. Relational innovation makes a particularly strong contribution to the strength of relational ties and ultimately, loyalty. Empirical research is urgently needed in this area to gain insight into these relations and the role of big data in value creation.


Relational innovation Information and communication technology Big data Brand equity Strength of relational ties Loyalty Hotels 



The authors are very grateful for the support of Spanish Ministry of Education and Science projects ECO2013-43353-R and ECO2016-76553-R.


  1. Aaker DA (1991) Managing brand equity. Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Aaker DA (1992) The value of brand equity. J Bus Strategy 13(4):27–32Google Scholar
  3. Aaker DA (1996) Building strong brand. Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Aaker D (2007) Innovation: brand it or lose it. Calif Manag Rev 50(1):8–24Google Scholar
  5. Agència Valenciana de Turisme (2017) Hoteles. Available at Accessed 22 Jan 2018
  6. Ahmad R, Buttle F (2001) Customer retention: a potentially potent marketing management strategy. J Strateg Mark 9(1):29–45Google Scholar
  7. Aiden E, Michel J-B (2014) The predictive power of big data. Newsweek. Available at Accessed 22 Jan 2018
  8. Amabile TM (1983) The social psychology of creativity. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Ambler T (1997) How much of brand equity is explained by trust? Manag Decis 35(4):283–292Google Scholar
  10. Anttiroiko AV, Valkama P, Bailey SJ (2014) Smart cities in the new service economy: building platforms for smart services. AI Soc 29(3):323–334Google Scholar
  11. Arvanitis S, Loukis E, Diamantopoulou V (2013) The effect of soft ICT capital on innovation performance of Greek firms. J Enterp Inf Manag 26(6):679–701Google Scholar
  12. Bailey R, Ball S (2006) An exploration of the meanings of hotel brand equity. Serv Ind J 26(1):15–38Google Scholar
  13. Balaji MS (2015) Investing in customer loyalty: the moderating role of relational characteristics. Serv Bus 9(1):17–40Google Scholar
  14. Binkhorst E, Den Dekker T (2009) Agenda for co-creation tourism experience research. J Hospitality Mark Manag 18(2–3):311–327Google Scholar
  15. Bitner MJ (1992) Servicescapes: the impact of physical surroundings on customers and employees. J Mark 56(April):57–71Google Scholar
  16. Blankson C, Kalafatis SP (1999) Issues and challenges in the positioning of service brands: a review. J of Product Brand Manag 8(2):106–118Google Scholar
  17. Boo S, Busser J, Baloglu S (2009) A model of customer-based brand equity and its application to multiple destinations. Tour Manag 30(2):219–231Google Scholar
  18. Bowen JT, McCain SLC (2015) Transitioning loyalty programs. Int J Contemp Hospitality Manag 27(3):415–430Google Scholar
  19. Brochado A, Rita P, Margarido A, Margarido A (2016) High tech meets high touch in upscale hotels. J Hospitality Tourism Technol 7(4):347–365Google Scholar
  20. Broyles SA, Schumann DW, Leingpibul T (2009) Examining brand equity antecedent/consequence relationships. J Mark Theor Prac 17(2):145–161Google Scholar
  21. Bruque S, Moyano J, Vargas A, Hernández MJ (2003) Ownership structure, technological endowment and competitive advantage: do democracy and business fit? Technol Anal Strateg Manag 15(1):65–79Google Scholar
  22. Buhalis D (1998) Strategic use of information technologies in the tourism industry. Tour Manag 19(5):409–421Google Scholar
  23. Buhalis D, Amaranggana A (2015) Smart tourism destinations enhancing tourism experience through personalisation of services. In: Tussyadiah I, Inversini A (eds) Information and communication technologies in tourism 2015. Springer, Cham, pp 377–389Google Scholar
  24. Buhalis D, Law R (2008) Progress in information technology and tourism management: 20 years on and 10 years after the Internet—the state of eTourism research. Tour Manag 29(4):609–623Google Scholar
  25. Buil I, Martínez E, de Chernatony L (2013) The influence of brand equity on consumer responses. J Consum Mark 30(1):62–74Google Scholar
  26. Cassivi L, Hadaya P, Lefebvre E, Lefebvre LA (2008) The role of collaboration on process, relational, and product innovations in a supply chain. Int J e-Collaboration 4(4):11–32Google Scholar
  27. Chan K, Leung Ng Y, Luk EK (2013) Impact of celebrity endorsement in advertising on brand image among Chinese adolescents. Young Consum 14(2):167–179Google Scholar
  28. Chebat J, El Hedhli K, Sirgy MJ (2009) How does shopper-based mall equity generate mall loyalty? A conceptual model and empirical evidence. J Retail Consum Serv 16(1):50–60Google Scholar
  29. Chin WW, Marcolin BL, Newsted PR (2003) A partial least squares latent variable modeling approach for measuring interaction effects: results from a Monte Carlo simulation study and an electronic mail emotion/adoption study. Inf Syst Res 14(2):189–217Google Scholar
  30. Choi G, Parsa HG, Sigala M, Putrevu S (2009) Consumers’ environmental concerns and behaviors in the lodging industry: a comparison between Greece and the United States. J Qual Assur Hospitality Tourism 10(2):93–112Google Scholar
  31. Dantuma LMY, Hawkins RW (2001) E-commerce in the logistics sector: assessing the effects on the logistics value chain. TNO and Telematica Instituut, DelftGoogle Scholar
  32. Davenport TH, Dyché J (2013) Big data in big companies. Int Inst Anal 3:1–31Google Scholar
  33. De Cannière MH, De Pelsmacker P, Geuens M (2010) Relationship quality and purchase intention and behavior: the moderating impact of relationship strength. J Bus Psychol 25(1):87–98Google Scholar
  34. De Chernatony L, Dall’Olmo R (1997) Brand consultants’ perspectives on the concept of ‘the brand’. Mark Res Today 25:45–53Google Scholar
  35. De Wulf K, Odekerken-Schröder G, Iacobucci D (2001) Investments in consumer relationships: a crosscountry and cross-industry exploration. J Mark 64(4):33–50Google Scholar
  36. DeCarlo TE, Laczniak RN, Motley CM, Ramaswami S (2007) Influence of image and familiarity on consumer response to negative word-of-mouth communication about retail entities. J Mark Theor Pract 15(1):41–51Google Scholar
  37. Den Hertog P (2000) Knowledge-intensive business services as co-producers of innovation. Int J Innov Manag 4(4):491–528Google Scholar
  38. Dessart L, Veloutsou C, Morgan Thomas A (2015) Consumer engagement in online brand communities. J Product Brand Manag 24(1):28–42Google Scholar
  39. Dick AS, Basu K (1994) Customer loyalty: toward an integrated conceptual framework. J Acad Mark Sci 22(2):99–113Google Scholar
  40. Diffley S, McCole P (2015) Extending customer relationship management into a social context. Serv Ind J 35(11–12):591–610Google Scholar
  41. Djellal F, Gallouj F (2010) Services, innovation and performance: general presentation. J Innov Econ Manag 1:5–15Google Scholar
  42. Drejer I (2004) Identifying innovation in surveys of services: a Schumpeterian perspective. Res Policy 33(3):551–562Google Scholar
  43. Dupuis M (2002) Innovation dans la distribution. Revue Française Du Marketing 188:61–68Google Scholar
  44. Falkenberg AW (1996) Marketing and the wealth of firms. J Macromarketing 16(1):4–24Google Scholar
  45. Farquhar PH (1989) Managing brand equity. Mark Res 1(3):24–33Google Scholar
  46. Fleck N, Korchia M, Le Roy I (2012) Celebrities in advertising: looking for congruence or likability? Psychol Mark 29(9):651–662Google Scholar
  47. Fleck N, Nabec L (2010) L’enseigne: un capital pour le distributeur. Manag Avenir 38(8):14–32Google Scholar
  48. Fornell C, Larcker DF (1981) Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. J Mark Res XVIII:39–50Google Scholar
  49. Ganesan S, George M, Jap S, Palmatier RW, Weitz B (2009) Supply chain management and retailer performance: emerging trends, issues, and implications for research and practice. J Retail 85(1):84–94Google Scholar
  50. Garbarino E, Johnson MS (1999) The different roles of satisfaction, trust, and commitment in customer relationships. J Mark 63:70–87Google Scholar
  51. Gartner (2012) IT glossary—big data. Available at Accessed 22 Jan 2018
  52. Gassenheimer JB, Calantone RJ, Scully JI (1995) Supplier involvement and dealer satisfaction: implications for enhancing channel relationships. J of Bus Ind Mark 10:7–19Google Scholar
  53. Gilbert D, Powell-Perry J (2001) Exploring developments in web based relation-ship marketing within the hotel industry. J Hospitality Mark Manag 9(3):141–159Google Scholar
  54. Gimbert X, Bisbe J, Mendoza X (2010) The role of performance measurement systems in strategy formulation processes. Long Range Plan 43(4):477–497Google Scholar
  55. Gretzel U, Sigala M, Xiang Z, Koo C (2015) Smart tourism: foundations and developments. Electr Markets 25(3):179–188Google Scholar
  56. Grissemann U, Plank A, Brunner-Sperdin A (2013) Enhancing business performance of hotels: the role of innovation and customer orientation. Int J Hospitality Manag 33:347–356Google Scholar
  57. Guerrero L, Colomer Y, Guardia MD, Xicola J, Clotet R (2000) Consumer attitude towards store brands. Food Qual Prefer 11(5):387–395Google Scholar
  58. Gurău C (2008) Integrated online marketing communication: implementation and management. J Commun Manag 12(2):169–184Google Scholar
  59. Guttentag DA (2010) Virtual reality: applications and implications for tourism. Tour Manag 31(5):637–651Google Scholar
  60. Hair JF, Hult GTM, Ringle C, Sarstedt M (2014) A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). SAGE Publication Inc, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  61. Ham S, Kim WG, Jeong S (2005) Effect of information technology on performance in upscale hotels. Int J Hospitality Manag 24(2):281–294Google Scholar
  62. Han H, Hsu LTJ, Lee JS, Sheu C (2011) Are lodging customers ready to go green? An examination of attitudes, demographics, and eco-friendly intentions. Int J Hospitality Manag 30(2):345–355Google Scholar
  63. Han H, Kim Y (2010) An investigation of green hotel customers’ decision formation: developing an extended model of the theory of planned behavior. Int J Hospitality Manag 29(4):659–668Google Scholar
  64. Hartmann PM, Zaki M, Feldmann N, Neely A (2016) Capturing value from big data—a taxonomy of data-driven business models used by start-up firms. Int J Oper Prod Manag 36(10):1382–1406Google Scholar
  65. He W, Tian X, Chen Y, Chong D (2016) Actionable social media competitive analytics for understanding customer experiences. J Comput Inf Syst 56(2):145–155Google Scholar
  66. Hennig-Thurau T, Groth M, Paul M, Gremler DD (2006) Are all smiles created equal? How emotional contagion and emotional labor affect service relationships. J Mark 70:58–73Google Scholar
  67. Henseler J, Ringle CM, Sarstedt M (2016) Testing measurement invariance of composites using partial least squares. Int Mark Rev 33(3):405–431Google Scholar
  68. Homburg C, Hoyer WD, Fassnacht M (2002) Service orientation of a retailer’s business strategy: dimensions, antecedents, and performance outcomes. J Mark 66(4):86–101Google Scholar
  69. Hooley GJ, Greenley GE, Cadogan JW, Fahy J (2005) The performance impact of marketing resources. J Bus Res 58(1):18–27Google Scholar
  70. Hsieh Y, Chiu H, Chiang M (2005) Maintaining a committed online customer: a study across search experience-credence products. J Retail 81(1):75–82Google Scholar
  71. Hu Y, Zhao S (2010) A case study of online retail innovation system on Alibaba Taobao. In: IEEE computer society, 2010 international conference on E-Business and E-Governmen. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, pp 224–227Google Scholar
  72. Jacob M, Tintoré J, Aguiló E, Bravo A, Mulet J (2003) Innovation in the tourism sector: results from a pilot study in the Balearic Islands. Tourism Econ 9(3):279–295Google Scholar
  73. Jap SD, Ganesan S (2000) Control mechanisms and the relationship life cycle: implications for safeguarding specific investments and developing commitment. J Mark Res 37(2):227–245Google Scholar
  74. Kayaman R, Arasli H (2007) Customer based brand equity: evidence from the hotel industry. Managing Serv Q 17(1):92–109Google Scholar
  75. Keller KL (1993) Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity. J Mark 57:1–22Google Scholar
  76. Keller KL (1998) Strategic brand management. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  77. Kim J, Hardin A (2010) The impact of virtual worlds on word-of-mouth: improving social networking and servicescape in the hospitality industry. J Hospitality Mark Manag 19(7):735–775Google Scholar
  78. Kim HB, Kim WG (2005) The relationship between brand equity and firms’ performance in luxury hotels and restaurants. Tour Manag 26(4):549–560Google Scholar
  79. Kliatchko J (2009) IMC 20 years after: a second look at IMC definitions. Int J Integr Mark Commun 1(2):7–12Google Scholar
  80. Krizaj D, Brodnik A, Bukovec B (2014) A tool for measurement of innovation newness and adoption in tourism firms. Int J Tourism Res 16(2):113–125Google Scholar
  81. Küpper T, Lehmkuhl T, Jung R, Wieneke R (2014) Features for social CRM technology. In: 20th Americas conference on information systems. Savannah, USA, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  82. Lam SK, Sleep S, Hennig-Thurau T, Sridhar S, Saboo AR (2017) Leveraging frontline employees’ small data and firm-level big data in frontline management: an absorptive capacity perspective. J Serv Res 20(1):12–28Google Scholar
  83. Laney D (2001) 3-D data management: controlling data volume, velocity and variety. Gartner report [blog]. Available at Accessed 22 Jan 2018
  84. Lassar W, Mittal B, Sharma A (1995) Measuring customer-based brand equity. J Consum Mark 12(4):11–19Google Scholar
  85. Law R, Jogaratnam G (2005) A study of hotel information technology applications. Int J Contemp Hospitality Manag 17(2):170–180Google Scholar
  86. Lee SC, Barker S, Kandampully J (2003) Technology, service quality, and customer loyalty in hotels: Australian managerial perspectives. Managing Serv Q 13(5):423–432Google Scholar
  87. Li L, Lee HA, Law R (2012) Technology-mediated management learning in hospitality organizations. Int J Hospitality Manag 31(2):451–457Google Scholar
  88. Lin C (2015) Conceptualizing and measuring consumer perceptions of retailer innovativeness in Taiwan. J Retail Consum Serv 24:33–41Google Scholar
  89. Lo AS, Stalcup LD, Lee A (2010) Customer relationship management for hotels in Hong Kong. Int J Contemp Hospitality Manag 22(2):139–159Google Scholar
  90. Lowson RH (2001) Retail operational strategies in complex supply chains. Int J Logistics Manag 12(1):97–111Google Scholar
  91. Luijten T, Reijnders W (2009) The development of store brands and the store as a brand in supermarkets in the Netherlands. Int Rev Retail Distrib Consum Res 19(1):45–58Google Scholar
  92. Malthouse EC, Haenlein M, Skiera B, Wege E, Zhang M (2013) Managing customer relationships in the social media era. J Interact Mark 27:270–280Google Scholar
  93. Martenson R (2007) Corporate brand image, satisfaction and store loyalty. A study of the store as a brand, store brands and manufacturer brands. Int J Retail Distrib Manag 35(7):544–555Google Scholar
  94. Martínez-Ros E, Orfila-Sintes F (2009) Innovation activity in the hotel industry. Technovation 29(9):632–641Google Scholar
  95. Mattsson J, Orfila-Sintes F (2014) Hotel innovation and its effect on business performance. Int J Tourism Res 16(4):388–398Google Scholar
  96. Mauri C (2003) Card loyalty. A new emerging issue in grocery retailing. J Retail Consum Serv 10(1):13–25Google Scholar
  97. Mendoza L, Marius A, Pérez M, Grimán A (2007) Critical success factors for a customer relationship management strategy. Inf Softw Technol 49:913–945Google Scholar
  98. Morabito V (2015) Big data and analytics. Springer International Publishing, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  99. Morgan RM, Hunt SD (1994) The commitment–trust theory of relationship marketing. J Mark 58:20–38Google Scholar
  100. Mulhern F (2009) Integrated marketing communications: from media channels to digital connectivity. J Mark Commun 15(2/3):85–101Google Scholar
  101. Murphy HC, Chen MM, Cossutta M (2016) An investigation of multiple devices and information sources used in the hotel booking process. Tour Manag 52:44–51Google Scholar
  102. Musso F (2010) Innovation in marketing channels. Emerg Issues Manag 1. Available at Accessed 22 Jan 2018
  103. Neuhofer B, Buhalis D (2012) Understanding and managing technology-enabled enhanced tourist experiences. In: The 2nd advances in hospitality and tourism marketing & management Conference Proceedings, Corfu, Greece, 31st May–3rd June 2012Google Scholar
  104. Neuhofer B, Buhalis D, Ladkin A (2014) A typology of technology-enhanced tourism experiences. Int J Tourism Res 16(4):340–350Google Scholar
  105. Nicolau L, Santa-María MJ (2013) The effect of innovation on the hotel market value. Int J Hospitality Manag 32:71–79Google Scholar
  106. Novelli M, Schmitz B, Spencer T (2006) Networks, clusters and innovation in tourism: a UK experience. Tour Manag 27(6):1141–1152Google Scholar
  107. O’Cass A, Grace D (2004) Service brands and communication effects. J Mark Commun 10(4):241–254Google Scholar
  108. Oh H, Parks SC (1997) Customer satisfaction and service quality: a critical review of the literature and research implications for the hospitality industry. Hospitality Res J 20:35–64Google Scholar
  109. Oke A (2007) Innovation types and innovation management practices in service companies. Int J Oper Prod Manag 27(6):564–587Google Scholar
  110. Oke A, Idiagbon-Oke M (2010) Communication channels, innovation tasks and NPD project outcomes in innovation-driven horizontal networks. J Oper Manag 28:442–453Google Scholar
  111. Orfila-Sintes F, Crespí-Cladera R, Martínez-Ros E (2005) Innovation activity in the hotel industry: evidence from Balearic Islands. Tour Manag 26(6):851–865Google Scholar
  112. Ottenbacher M, Shaw V, Lockwood A (2006) An investigation of the factors affecting innovation performance in chain and independent hotels. J Q Assur Hospitality Tourism 6(3–4):113–128Google Scholar
  113. Pappu R, Quester PG, Cooksey RW (2005) Consumer-based brand equity: improving the measurement—empirical evidence. J Prod Brand Manag 14(3):143–154Google Scholar
  114. Pendergast D (2010) Getting to know the Y generation. Tourism Gener Y 1:1–15Google Scholar
  115. Phillips-Wren G, Hoskisson A (2015) An analytical journey towards big data. J Decis Syst 24(1):87–102Google Scholar
  116. Pikkemaat B, Peters M (2006) Towards the measurement of innovation—a pilot study in the small and medium sized hotel industry. J Q Assur Hospitality Tourism 6(3–4):89–112Google Scholar
  117. Pine BJ, Peppers D, & Rogers M (2009) Do you want to keep your customers forever? Harvard Business Press, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
  118. Pivčević S, Garbin Praničević D (2012) Innovation activity in the hotel sector—the case of Croatia. Ekonomska istraživanja 1:337–363Google Scholar
  119. Potts J, Mandeville T (2007) Toward an evolutionary theory of innovation and growth in the service economy. Prometheus 25(2):147–159Google Scholar
  120. Prensky M (2001) Digital natives, digital immigrants part 1. On Horiz 9(5):1–6Google Scholar
  121. Rababah K, Mohd H, Ibrahim H (2011) Customer relationship management (CRM) processes from theory to practice: the pre-implementation plan of CRM system. Int J e-Education e-Business e-Management e-Learning 1(1):22Google Scholar
  122. Rahimi R (2017) Customer relationship management (people, process and technology) and organisational culture in hotels: which traits matter? Int J Contemp Hospitality Manag 29(5):1380–1402Google Scholar
  123. Reid M (2002) Building strong brands through the management of integrated marketing communications. Int J Wine Mark 14(3):37–52Google Scholar
  124. Reinartz W, Dellaert B, Krafft M, Kumar V, Varadarajan R (2011) Retailing innovations in a globalizing retail market environment. J Retail 87:S53–S66Google Scholar
  125. Rezaei S (2015) Segmenting consumer decision-making styles (CDMS) toward marketing practice: a partial least squares (PLS) path modeling approach. J Retail Consum Serv 22:1–15Google Scholar
  126. Ringle CM, Wende S, Becker J (2014) SmartPLS 3, SmartPLS, Hamburg. Available at Accessed 22 Jan 2018
  127. Ritter T, Walter A (2012) More is not always better: the impact of relationship functions on customer-perceived relationship value. Ind Mark Manage 41(1):136–144Google Scholar
  128. Ruiz-Molina ME, Gil-Saura I, Moliner-Velázquez B (2011) Does technology make a difference? Evidence from Spanish hotels. Serv Bus 5(1):1–12Google Scholar
  129. Ruiz-Molina ME, Gil-Saura I, Servera-Francés D (2017) Innovation as a key to strengthen the effect of relationship benefits on loyalty in retailing. J Serv Mark 31(2):131–141Google Scholar
  130. Ryssel R, Ritter T, Gemunden HG (2004) The impact of information technology deployment on trust, commitment and value creation in business relationships. J Bus Ind Mark 19(3):197–207Google Scholar
  131. Salegna GJ, Goodwin SA (2005) Consumer loyalty to service providers: an integrated conceptual model. J Consum Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Complaining Behav 18:51–67Google Scholar
  132. Sansone M, Colamatteo A (2017) Trends and dynamics in retail industry: focus on relational proximity. Int Bus Res 10(2):169Google Scholar
  133. Santos-Vijande ML, López-Sánchez JA, Rudd J (2016) Frontline employees’ collaboration in industrial service innovation: routes of co-creation’s effects on new service performance. J Acad Mark Sci 44(3):350–375Google Scholar
  134. Sasmita J, Mohd Suki N (2015) Young consumers’ insights on brand equity: effects of brand association, brand loyalty, brand awareness, and brand image. Int J Retail Distrib Manag 43(3):276–292Google Scholar
  135. Schultz DE (1999) Integrated marketing communications and how it relates to traditional media advertising. In: Jones JP (ed) The advertising business: operations, creativity, media planning, integrated communications. Sage, London, pp 325–338Google Scholar
  136. Scupola A (2014) The relation between innovation sources and ICT roles in facility management organizations. J Facil Manag 12(4):368–381Google Scholar
  137. Sigala M, Connolly D (2004) In search of the next big thing: IT issues and trends facing the hospitality industry. A review of the sixth annual pan-european hospitality technology exhibition and conference (EURHOTEC 2001); International Hotel and Restaurant Association, Paris, 19–21 February, Palais Des Congres. Tourism Management, vol 25, issue no 6, pp 807–809Google Scholar
  138. Sigala M (2011) eCRM2.0 applications and trends: the use and perceptions of Greek tourism firms of social networks. Comput Hum Behav 27:655–661Google Scholar
  139. Sigala M (2012) Web 2.0 and customer involvement in new service development: a framework, cases and implications in tourism. In: Sigala N, Christou E, Gretzel U (eds) Web 2.0 in travel, tourism and hospitality: theory, practice and cases. Ashgate Publishing Limited, London, pp 25–38Google Scholar
  140. Sigala M (2015) The application and impact of gamification funware on trip planning and experiences. Electron Markets 25(3):189–209Google Scholar
  141. Sigala M (2016) Social CRM capabilities and readiness: findings from Greek tourism firms. Information and communication technologies in Tourism 2016. Springer, Cham, pp 309–322Google Scholar
  142. Sigala M, Marinidis D (2012) Web map services in tourism: a framework exploring the organisational transformations and implications on business operations and models. Int J Bus Inf Syst 9(4):415–434Google Scholar
  143. Smerecnik KR, Andersen PA (2011) The diffusion of environmental sustainability innovations in North American hotels and ski resorts. J Sustain Tourism 19(2):171–196Google Scholar
  144. So KKG, King C (2010) When experience matters: building and measuring hotel brand equity. The customers’ perspective. Int J Contemp Hospitality Manag 22(5):589–608Google Scholar
  145. Srivastava RK, Fahey L, Christensen HK (2001) The resource-based view and marketing: the role of market-based assets in gaining competitive advantage. J Manag 27(6):777–802Google Scholar
  146. Srivastava RK, Shervani TA, Fahey L (1998) Market-based assets and shareholder value: a framework for analysis. J Mark 62(1):2–18Google Scholar
  147. Strutton D, Taylor DG, Thompson K (2011) Investigating generational differences in e-WOM behaviours. Int J Advertising 30(4):559–586Google Scholar
  148. Sundbo J, Orfila-Sintes F, Sørensen F (2007) The innovative behaviour of tourism firms: comparative studies of Denmark and Spain. Res Policy 36(1):88–106Google Scholar
  149. Tantiseneepong N, Gorton M, White J (2012) Evaluating responses to celebrity endorsements using projective techniques. Q Market Res Int J 15(1):57–69Google Scholar
  150. Tejada P, Moreno P (2013) Patterns of innovation in tourism ‘small and medium-size enterprises’. Serv Ind J 33(7–8):749–758Google Scholar
  151. Thwaites D, Lowe B, Monkhouse LL, Barnes BR (2012) The impact of negative publicity on celebrity ad endorsements. Psychol Mark 29(9):663–673Google Scholar
  152. Tourespaña (2017) Accommodation in Spain. Available at Accessed 22 Jan 2018
  153. Vargo SL, Lusch RF (2004) Evolving to a new dominant logic for marketing. J Mark 68(1):1–17Google Scholar
  154. Vargo SL, Lusch RF (2008) Service-dominant logic: continuing the evolution. J Acad Mark Sci 36(1):1–10Google Scholar
  155. Vila M, Enz C, Costa G (2012) Innovative practices in the Spanish hotel industry. Cornell Hospitality Q 53(1):75–85Google Scholar
  156. Vize R, Coughlan J, Kennedy A, Ellis-Chadwick F (2013) Technology readiness in a B2B Online retail context: an examination of antecedents and outcomes. Ind Mark Manage 42(6):909–918Google Scholar
  157. Volo S (2006) A consumer-based measurement of tourism innovation. J Q Assur Hospitality Tourism 6(3–4):73–87Google Scholar
  158. Wang CJ, Tsai CY (2014) Managing innovation and creativity in organizations: an empirical study of service industries in Taiwan. Serv Bus 8(2):313–335Google Scholar
  159. Wang H, Wei Y, Yu C (2008) Global brand equity model: combining customer-based with product-market outcome approaches. J Product Brand Manag 17(5):305–316Google Scholar
  160. Wang D, Xiang Z, Fesenmaier DR (2014) Adapting to the mobile world: a model of smartphone use. Ann Tourism Res 48:11–26Google Scholar
  161. Wang D, Xiang Z, Fesenmaier DR (2016) Smartphone use in everyday life and travel. J Travel Res 55(1):52–63Google Scholar
  162. Weerawardena J (2003) The role of marketing capability in innovation-based competitive strategy. J Strateg Mark 11(1):15–35Google Scholar
  163. Weill P, Ross J (2009) IT savvy: what top executives must know to go from pain to gain. Harvard Business School Publishing, BostonGoogle Scholar
  164. Williams KC, Page RA, Petrosky AR, Hernandez EH (2010) Multi-generational marketing: descriptions, characteristics, lifestyles, and attitudes. J Appl Bus Econ 11(2):21Google Scholar
  165. Wong IA (2013) Exploring customer equity and the role of service experience in the casino service encounter. Int J Hospitality Manag 32:91–101Google Scholar
  166. Wong MH (2015) Japan’s robot hotel opens its (automatic) doors. CNN. Available at
  167. Wu F, Yeniyurt S, Kim D, Cavusgil ST (2006) The impact of information technology on supply chain capabilities and firm performance: a resource-based view. Ind Mark Manage 35:493–504Google Scholar
  168. Xiang Z, Schwartz Z, Gerdes JH, Uysal M (2015) What can big data and text analytics tell us about hotel guest experience and satisfaction? Int J Hospitality Manag 44:120–130Google Scholar
  169. Ye J, Marinova D, Singh J (2012) Bottom-up learning in marketing frontlines: conceptualization, processes, and consequences. J Acad Mark Sci 40(6):821–844Google Scholar
  170. Yoo B, Donthu N (2001) Developing and validating a multidimensional consumer-based brand equity scale. J Bus Res 52(1):1–14Google Scholar
  171. Yoo B, Donthu N, Lee S (2000) An examination of selected marketing mix elements and brand equity. J Acad Mark Sci 28(2):195–211Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universitat de ValènciaValenciaSpain
  2. 2.Universidad Católica de ValenciaValenciaSpain

Personalised recommendations