Advertisement

Gender: From Male Breadwinner to the Independent Adult Worker

Chapter

Abstract

This chapter builds on chapter one’s argument that initially in both Australia and internationally, social democracy’s mission was largely conceived in terms of improving the pay and conditions of a white, heterosexual, male breadwinner head of household. It points out that such constructions were contested by feminists as early as the nineteenth century. This chapter documents how Australian Labor governments from the nineteen seventies on increasingly incorporated conceptions of gender equality into their policies. However, as discussed in the case of race in the previous chapter, Labor has sometimes attempted to incorporate issues of race and ethnicity within their pre-existing policy frameworks, including those influenced by neoliberalism, and has sometimes underestimated the influence of ongoing cultural discrimination, including backlashes against gender equality. While the chapter predominantly focuses on Australian material, international examples are given from a range of countries, including France, Spain, Britain and Sweden in order to demonstrate the broader relevance of the Australian examples.

Keywords

Social democracy Equality Gender Women Equal pay Neoliberalism 

References

  1. AAP [Australian Associated Press], General Newswire. (2009, May 12). Rudd govt has turned its back on textile workers: Union.Google Scholar
  2. Adkins, L., & Dever, M. (2014). Gender and labour in new times: An introduction. Australian Feminist Studies, 29(79), 1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1080/08164649.2014.913469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. ALP [Australian Labor Party]. (2015). ALP national constitution, adopted 26 July. https://cdn.australianlabor.com.au/documents/ALP_National_Constitution.pdf. Accessed May 4, 2018.
  4. ALP. (2016a). Australian women: Labor’s positive policies. http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/download/library/partypol/4660900/upload_binary/4660900.pdf. Accessed May 4, 2018.
  5. ALP. (2016b). Growing Together: Labor’s agenda for tackling inequality. http://cdn.australianlabor.com.au/documents/Growing-Together.pdf. Accessed December 5, 2018.
  6. ALP. (2016c). Women’s budget reply statement. http://clairemoore.net/_dbase_upl/160502_Womens_Budget_Analysis_FINAL_.pdf. Accessed May 4, 2018.
  7. ALP. (2018). Setting the agenda: A national strategy for gender equality. https://d3n8a8pro7vhmx.cloudfront.net/tanyaplibersek/pages/1261/attachments/original/1520380901/Labor’s_Gender_Equality_Strategy.pdf. Accessed May 4, 2018.
  8. Annesley, C., Gains, F., & Rummery, K. (Eds.). (2007). Women and new labour: Engendering politics and policy. Bristol: Policy Press.Google Scholar
  9. Berman, S. (2006). The primacy of politics: Social democracy and the making of Europe’s twentieth century. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bowen, C. (2018). Labor’s plan to improve women’s super-security. Media release, 19 September. https://www.chrisbowen.net/media-releases/labor-s-plan-to-improve-women-s-super-security/. Accessed September 23, 2018.
  11. Brodie, J. (1995). Politics on the margins: Restructuring and the Canadian women’s movement. Halifax, NS: Fernwood.Google Scholar
  12. Bustelo, M. (2016). Three decades of state feminism and gender equality policies in multi-governed Spain. Sex Roles, 74(3–4), 107–120.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-014-0381-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cameron, C. (1973). Discrimination in employment and occupation: Ministerial statement, 22 May. Parliamentary Debates, Australia, House of Representatives (pp. 2371–2380). Commonwealth of Australia.Google Scholar
  14. Castles, F. G. (1985). The working class and welfare: Reflections on the political development of the welfare state in Australia and New Zealand, 1890–1980. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  15. Charlesworth, S., & Smith, M. (2018). Gender pay equity. In A. Stewart, J. Stanford, & T. Hardy (Eds.), The wages crisis in Australia: What it is and what to do about it (pp. 85–102). Adelaide: Adelaide University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Collignon, S. (2012). The preconditions of social Europe and the tasks of social democracy. In H. Meyer & J. Rutherford (Eds.), The future of European social democracy: Building the good society (pp. 39–53). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Collins, J. (2013). Launch of Women’s Budget Highlights, speech, Parliament House, Canberra, 16 May. http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/131352/20130701-0936/juliecollins.fahcsia.gov.au/node/359.html. Accessed May 4, 2018.
  18. Cox, E. (2009, February 4). Rudd’s sexist, moralistic stimulus package. Crikey. http://www.crikey.com.au/2009/02/04/cox-rudds-sexist-moralistic-stimulus-package. Accessed December 24, 2014.
  19. Crouch, C. (2011). The strange non-death of neo-liberalism. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  20. Dowse, S. (1983). The women’s movement fandango with the State: The movement’s role in public policy since 1972. In B. Cass & C. Baldock (Eds.), Women, social welfare and the state (pp. 201–222). Sydney: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  21. Durbin, S., Page, M., & Walby, S. (2017). Gender equity and ‘austerity’: Vulnerabilities, resistance and change. Gender, Work & Organisation, 24(10), 1–6.  https://doi.org/10.1111/gwao.12173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Edenheim, S., & Rönnblom, M. (2016). Representations of equality: Processes of depoliticization of the citizen subject. In H. Danielsen, K. Jergerstedt, R. L. Muriaas, & B. Ytre-Arne (Eds.), Gendered citizenship and the politics of representation (pp. 61–84). London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ellis, K. (2011a). Speech to the International Conference for Women Engineers and Scientists, Adelaide Convention Centre, 20 July. https://formerministers.dss.gov.au/582/the-international-conference-for-women-engineers-and-scientists/. Accessed May 4, 2018.
  24. Ellis, K. (2011b). Speech to Women and Leadership Australia’s National 2011 Adelaide Symposium, Playford Sebel, Adelaide, 15 July. https://formerministers.dss.gov.au/583/women-and-leadership-australias-national-2011-adelaide-symposium/. Accessed May 4, 2018.
  25. Ferguson, M. (1999). Foreword. In M. Thompson (Ed.), Labor without class: The gentrification of the ALP (pp. v–vii). Sydney: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  26. Fraser, N. (2013, October 14). How feminism became capitalism’s handmaiden-and how to reclaim it. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/oct/14/feminism-capitalist-handmaiden-neoliberal. Accessed November 7, 2018.
  27. Fraser, N. (2017, January 2). The end of progressive neoliberalism. Dissent. https://www.dissentmagazine.org/online_articles/progressive-neoliberalism-reactionary-populism-nancy-fraser. Accessed April 5, 2017.
  28. Game, A., & Pringle, R. (1978). Women and class in Australia: Feminism and the Labor government. In G. Duncan (Ed.), Critical essays in Australian politics (pp. 114–134). Melbourne: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  29. George, J. (2017, June 19). Labor shadow ministry is not a welcome place for women from the right. The Australian, p. 13.Google Scholar
  30. Gillard, J. (2010). Questions without notice: Social and community workers, 23 November. Parliamentary Debates, Australia, House of Representatives (pp. 3429–3430). Commonwealth of Australia.Google Scholar
  31. Gillard, J. (2011a). Labor in Australia is a movement. Speech to Chifley Research Centre, Canberra, 16 September. http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/121064/20111205-0008/www.pm.gov.au/press-office/labor-australia-movement-address-chifley-research-centre-canberra.html. Accessed October 17, 2014.
  32. Gillard, J. (2011b). Speech to social and community sector workers, Sydney, 10 November. https://pmtranscripts.pmc.gov.au/release/transcript-18258. Accessed May 4, 2018.
  33. Gillard, J. (2011c). Speech to the International Women of Courage Award Ceremony, Washington, 8 March. https://pmtranscripts.pmc.gov.au/release/transcript-17725. Accessed May 4, 2018.
  34. Gillard, J. (2013a). Statement. Media Release, 26 June. https://pmtranscripts.pmc.gov.au/release/transcript-22662. Accessed May 4, 2018.
  35. Gillard, J. (2013b). Transcript of remarks at launch of Women for Gillard. Media Release, 11 June. https://pmtranscripts.pmc.gov.au/release/transcript-19394. Accessed October 30, 2018.
  36. Hall, L. J., & Donoghue, N. (2013). ‘Nice girls don’t carry knives’: Constructions of ambition in media coverage of Australia’s first female prime minister. British Journal of Social Psychology, 52(4), 631–647.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.2012.02114.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hannan, E., & Karvalas, P. (2014, February 25). Coalition resists equal pay claim. The Australian. http://www.theaustralian.com.au/national-affairs/industrial-relations/coalition-resists-equal-pay-claim/story-fn59noo3-1226836394235. Accessed January 1, 2015.
  38. Hawke, B. (1983). Election speech. Sydney, 16 February. http://electionspeeches.moadoph.gov.au/speeches/1983-bob-hawke?highlight=Hawke. Accessed May 4, 2018.
  39. Hawke, B. (1984). Interview with Jeremy Cordeaux, Macquarie Radio 5DN, Adelaide, 18 April. https://pmtranscripts.pmc.gov.au/sites/default/files/original/00006377.pdf. Accessed May 4, 2018.
  40. Hawke, B. (1986). Affirmative Action (Equal Employment Opportunity for Women) Bill 1986: Second Reading, 19 February. Parliamentary Debates, Australia, House of Representatives (pp. 862–866). Commonwealth of Australia.Google Scholar
  41. Hawke, B. (1989). Speech to 10th Anniversary of South Australian ALP Women’s Policy Committee, Adelaide, 21 May. https://pmtranscripts.pmc.gov.au/release/transcript-7604. Accessed May 4, 2018.
  42. Hayden, B. (1975). Appropriation Bill (No. 1) 1975–76: Second Reading (budget speech), 19 August. Parliamentary Debates, Australia, House of Representatives (p. 53). Commonwealth of Australia.Google Scholar
  43. Hewitt, J. (1988, May 27). Peter Walsh a cut above the fray. The Australian Financial Review, p. 1.Google Scholar
  44. Holloway, E. J. (1942a). Employment of Women: Motion to disallow regulations, 21 May. Parliamentary Debates, Australia, House of Representatives (pp. 1465–1489). Commonwealth of Australia.Google Scholar
  45. Holloway, E. J. (1942b). Widows’ Pensions Bill 1942: Second reading, 14 May. Parliamentary Debates, Australia, House of Representatives (pp. 1236–1241). Commonwealth of Australia.Google Scholar
  46. Indian National Congress. (2016). Congress accomplished its mission of women emancipation. Sandesh (18) 12. https://www.inc.in/en/congress-sandesh/achievement/congress-accomplished-its-mission-of-women-emancipation. Accessed December 9, 2018.
  47. Jackson, A. (1943, August 14). Why this election is vital to women: Mr Curtin and Mr Menzies answer some questions. The Australian Women’s Weekly, pp. 9–10.Google Scholar
  48. Johnson, C. (1989). The Labor legacy: Curtin, Chifley, Whitlam, Hawke. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  49. Johnson, C. (1990). Whose consensus? Women and the ALP. Arena, 93, 85–104.Google Scholar
  50. Johnson, C. (1995). Women and economic citizenship: The limits of Keating’s inclusive social democracy. Just Policy, 2, 11–16.Google Scholar
  51. Johnson, C. (1996). Negotiating the politics of inclusion: Women and Australian Labor governments 1983–1995. Feminist Review, 52(1), 102–115.  https://doi.org/10.1057/fr.1996.10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Johnson, C. (2007). Governing change: From Keating to Howard (revised ed.). Perth: API Network.Google Scholar
  53. Johnson, C. (2011). Gillard, Rudd and Labor tradition. Australian Journal of Politics and History, 57(4), 562–579.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8497.2011.01614.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Johnson, C. (2013). Gough Whitlam and Labor tradition. In T. Bramston (Ed.), The Whitlam Legacy (pp. 357–364). Annandale: Federation Press.Google Scholar
  55. Johnson, C. (2015a). Playing the gender card: The uses and abuses of gender in Australian politics. Politics & Gender, 11(2), 291–319.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1743923X15000045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Johnson, C. (2015b). Incorporating gender equality: Tensions and synergies in the relationships between feminism and Australian social democracy. In A. Yetman (Ed.), Feminism, social liberalism and social democracy in the neo-liberal era: Working papers in the Human Rights and Public Life Program No 1: June 2015 (pp. 36–50). Sydney: Whitlam Institute within the University of Western Sydney. https://www.whitlam.org/publications/2017/10/24/feminism-social-liberalism-and-social-democracy-in-the-neo-liberal-era. Accessed September 21, 2018.
  57. Johnson, C., & Tonkiss, F. (2002). The third influence: The Blair government and Australian Labor. Policy and Politics, 30(1), 5–18.  https://doi.org/10.1332/0305573022501539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jones, M. (1987, April 17). Meet the death or glory girls. The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 6.Google Scholar
  59. Judt, T. (2010). Ill fares the land. London: Penguin Press.Google Scholar
  60. Keating, P. (1970). Governor-General’s speech: Address-in-reply (maiden speech), 17 March. Parliamentary Debates, Australia, House of Representatives (pp. 512–518). Commonwealth of Australia.Google Scholar
  61. Keating, P. (1992). Speech to the National Family Summit, Parliament House, Canberra, 11 November. https://pmtranscripts.pmc.gov.au/sites/default/files/original/00008719.pdf. Accessed October 31, 2018.
  62. Keating, P. (1993). Speech to the conference on Women, Power and the 21st Century, Melbourne, 3 December. http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/10185/20150506-0136/www.keating.org.au/shop/item/women-power-and-the-21st-century—3-december-1993.html. Accessed October 31, 2018.
  63. Keating, P. (1994). Speech to the opening of the Women, Power and Politics International Conference for the Centenary of Women’s Suffrage, Adelaide, 8 October. https://pmtranscripts.pmc.gov.au/sites/default/files/original/00009375.pdf. Accessed May 4, 2018.
  64. La Barbera, M., & Lombardo, E. (2017). “The Long and Winding Road”: A comparative policy analysis of multilevel judicial implementation of work–life balance in Spain. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13876988.2017.1363949.
  65. Lake, M. (1992). The independence of women and the brotherhood of man: Debates in the labour movement over equal pay and motherhood endowment in the 1920s. Labour History, 63, 1–24.  https://doi.org/10.2307/27509136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Levitas, R. (1998). The inclusive society? Social exclusion and New Labour. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  67. Liddington, J., & Norris, J. (1978). One hand tied behind us: The rise of the women’s suffrage movement. London: Virago.Google Scholar
  68. Ludlam, S. (2009). Appropriation (Nation Building and Jobs) Bill (No. 1) 2008–2009 and related legislation: Second reading, 10 February. Parliamentary Debates, Australia, Senate (pp. 631–635). Commonwealth of Australia.Google Scholar
  69. Lundy, K. (2010). Adjournment: International Women’s Day, 9 March. Parliamentary Debates, Australia, Senate (pp. 1401–1404). Commonwealth of Australia.Google Scholar
  70. Macklin, J. (2010). Questions without notice: Paid parental leave, 17 March. Parliamentary Debates, Australia, House of Representatives (p. 2792). Commonwealth of Australia.Google Scholar
  71. Macklin, J. (2013). Dad and Partner Pay, family payments, parenting payment–Doorstop, Melbourne, 1 January. http://www.formerministers.dss.gov.au/13238/dad-and-partner-pay-family-payments-parenting-payment-doorstop-melbourne/. Accessed December 21, 2014.
  72. McCann, J., & Wilson, J. (2012). Representation of women in Australian parliaments. Canberra: Parliamentary Services, Parliament of Australia. https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/BN/2011-2012/Womeninparliament. Accessed December 19, 2014.
  73. McDowell, L. (2014). The sexual contract, youth, masculinity and the uncertain promise of waged work in austerity Britain. Australian Feminist Studies, 29(79), 31–49.  https://doi.org/10.1080/08164649.2014.901281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Messner, M. A. (2007). The masculinity of the Governator: Muscle and compassion in American politics. Gender & Society, 21(4), 461–480.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243207303166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Meyer, T., with Hinchman, L. (2007). The theory of social democracy. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  76. Mirowski, P. (2013). Never let a serious crisis go to waste: How neoliberalism survived the financial meltdown. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  77. Murray, R. (2010). Introduction: Gender stereotypes and media coverage of women candidates. In R. Murray (Ed.), Cracking the highest glass ceiling: A global comparison of women’s campaigns for executive office (pp. 3–28). Santa Barbara, California: Praegar.Google Scholar
  78. Pateman, C. (1996). Democratization and citizenship in the 1990s: The legacy of T.H. Marshall–Vilhelm Aubert Memorial Lecture 1996. Oslo: Institute for Social Research and Department of Sociology, University of Oslo.Google Scholar
  79. Paternotte, D., & Kuhar, R. (2017). The anti-gender movement in comparative perspective. In R. Kuhar & D. Paternotte (Eds.), Anti-gender campaigns in Europe: mobilising against equality (pp. 253–276). London: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  80. Pixley, J. (1994). After the White Paper—Where? Just Policy, 1, 20–26.Google Scholar
  81. Plibersek, T. (2009). Questions without notice: Women in the workplace, 15 September. Parliamentary Debates, Australia, House of Representatives (pp. 9594–9597). Commonwealth of Australia.Google Scholar
  82. Plibersek, T. (2018a). Transcript: Doorstop, Sydney, 23 September. http://www.tanyaplibersek.com/transcript_doorstop_sydney_sunday_23_september_2018. Accessed November 8, 2018.
  83. Plibersek, T. (2018b). Interview with Patricia Karvelas, ABC RN Drive, 7 March. http://www.tanyaplibersek.com/transcript_radio_interview_abc_rn_drive_with_patricia_karvelas. Accessed May 4, 2018.
  84. Plibersek, T. (2018c). Speech to the National Press Club of Australia, Canberra, 7 March. http://www.tanyaplibersek.com/speech_national_press_club_address. Accessed May 4, 2018.
  85. Probert, B. (1989). Working life. Melbourne: McPhee Gribble.Google Scholar
  86. Quiggin, J. (2012). Zombie economics: How dead ideas still walk among us. Melbourne: Black Inc.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. République Française. (2017). Les mesures en faveur de l’égalité femmes-hommes. Contenu publié sous la présidence de François Hollande du 15 mai 2012 au 15 Mai 2017. https://www.gouvernement.fr/action/les-mesures-en-faveur-de-l-egalite-femmes-hommes. Accessed September 27, 2018.
  88. Revaluing Care Research Network. (n.d.). http://revaluingcare.net/. Accessed May 4, 2018.
  89. Rimmer, S. M. (1994). Australian labour market and microeconomic reform. Melbourne: La Trobe University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Robinson, J. (1946). Obstacles to full employment. Reprinted in J. Robinson, (1978), Contributions to modern economics. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  91. Rottenberg, C. A. (2018). The rise of neoliberal feminism. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rudd, K. (2008). Respecting women and leading men. Speech to White Ribbon Foundation Annual White Tie Dinner, Four Seasons Hotel, Sydney, 17 September. https://pmtranscripts.pmc.gov.au/release/transcript-16122. Accessed May 4, 2018.
  93. Sawer, M. (1990). Sisters in suits: Women and public policy in Australia. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  94. Sawer, M. (2003). The ethical state? Social liberalism in Australia. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.Google Scholar
  95. Sawer, M. (2004). Populism and public choice in Australia and Canada: Turning equality-seekers into ‘special interests’. In M. Sawer & B. Hindess (Eds.), Us and them: Anti-elitism in Australia (pp. 33–55). Perth: API Network.Google Scholar
  96. Sawer, M. (2012). Andrew Fisher and the era of liberal reform. Labour History, 102, 71–86.  https://doi.org/10.5263/labourhistory.102.0071.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sawer, M. (2013). Misogyny and misrepresentation: Women in Australian parliaments. Political Science, 65(1), 105–117.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0032318713488316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Scott, A. (2000). Running on empty: ‘Modernising’ the British and Australian labour parties. Annandale, NSW: Pluto.Google Scholar
  99. Scott, A. (2014). Northern lights: The positive policy example of Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Norway. Melbourne: Monash University Publishing.Google Scholar
  100. Sharp, R., & Broomhill, R. (1989). Short-changed: Women and economic policies. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  101. Shorten, B. (2013). Celebrating WA equal pay decision. Media release, 3 September. http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/22093/20130906-0237/www.alp.org.au/cm12_030913.html. Accessed May 4, 2018.
  102. Shorten, B. (2016). Speech for the Launch of Labor’s gender equality policy, Sydney, 11 June. http://www.billshorten.com.au/launch_of_labor_s_gender_equality_policy_sydney_saturday_11_june_2016. Accessed May 4, 2018.
  103. Shorten, B. (2018a). Doorstop, Canberra, 19 September. http://www.billshorten.com.au/_doorstop_canberra_wednesday_19_september_2018. Accessed September 23, 2018.
  104. Shorten, B. (2018b). Transcript—Press Club address Q&A, Canberra, 30 January. http://www.billshorten.com.au/transcript_press_club_address_q_a_tuesday_30_january_2018. Accessed April 3, 2018.
  105. Taylor, B. (1983). Eve and the New Jerusalem: Socialism and feminism in the nineteenth century. London: Virago.Google Scholar
  106. Trimble, L. (2014). Melodrama and gendered mediation: Television coverage of women’s leadership ‘coups’ in New Zealand and Australia. Feminist Media Studies, 14(4), 663–678.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2013.826268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wallace, C. (2018, September 21). Quotas are not pretty but they work—Liberal women should insist on them. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/quotas-are-not-pretty-but-they-work-liberal-women-should-insist-on-them-103517. Accessed December 6, 2018.
  108. WEF [World Economic Forum] & The Boston Consulting Group. (2018). Towards a Reskilling Revolution: A future of jobs for all. Geneva: World Economic Forum. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_FOW_Reskilling_Revolution.pdf. Accessed January 25, 2018.
  109. Whitlam, G. (1973). The emancipation of women. Speech to YWCA Convention, Queensland, 24 August. https://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/24236/20060327-0000/www.whitlam.org/collection/1973/19730824_emancipation_women/index.html. Accessed November 26, 2018.
  110. Whitlam, G. (1974). Equal pay for women. Press Statement no. 245, 2 May. https://pmtranscripts.pmc.gov.au/sites/default/files/original/00003233.pdf. Accessed May 4, 2018.
  111. Whitlam, G. (1975). Speech to the opening of the Women and Politics Conference, Canberra, 31 August. https://pmtranscripts.pmc.gov.au/sites/default/files/original/00003874.pdf. Accessed May 4, 2018.
  112. Wong, P. (2011, November 18). Marriage of equality is a core value for all to hold dear. The Sydney Morning Herald. https://www.smh.com.au/politics/federal/marriage-of-equality-is-a-core-value-for-all-to-hold-dear-20111118-1nn28.html. Accessed May 4, 2018.
  113. Wong, P. (2014). Speech to 2014 Annual Jessie Street Luncheon, Parliament House, Sydney, 11 April. http://www.pennywong.com.au/speeches/2014-annual-jessie-street-luncheon/. Accessed December 24, 2014.
  114. Yeatman, A. (2014). Feminism and the technological age. Australian Feminist Studies, 29(79), 85–100.  https://doi.org/10.1080/08164649.2014.901282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Politics and International RelationsUniversity of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations