Exposure to UHF Electromagnetic Radiation in Urban Areas
Employing various wireless technologies in everyday activities has increased the quality of life, exposing us to an increasing amount of electromagnetic radiation. In urban areas the electromagnetic pollution is more significant for the common mobile communication frequency bands because of the multitude of base stations deployed to serve a large amount of users. As such, when deploying new telecommunication sites, the operators must comply with the regulations and be aware of the existing EM background. This paper presents an overview of health risks for these frequency bands and focuses on the evaluation of the electromagnetic radiation while performing a measurement campaign in the central area of Cluj-Napoca for the 700–1000 MHz frequency range.
KeywordsElectromagnetic pollution Electromagnetic radiation Spectrum analyzer
This paper was partially supported by a grant of the Ministry of Innovation and Research, UEFISCDI, project number 6 Sol/2017 within PNCDI III, and by a grant of the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research, RDI Programme for Space Technology and Advanced Research—STAR, project number 116/2016.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 1.Wolf, R., Wolf, D.: Increased incidence of cancer near a cell-phone transmitter station. Int. J. Cancer Prev. 1(2), 123–128 (2004)Google Scholar
- 2.Vecchia, P., Matthes, R., Ziegelberger, G., Lin, J., Saunders, R., Swerdlow, A.: Exposure to high frequency electromagnetic fields, biological effects and health consequences (100KHz–300 GHz). Int. Comm. Non-Ionizing Radiat. Protect. (2009)Google Scholar
- 4.ICNIRP—The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection at https://www.icnirp.org/
- 6.Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENTHR) at https://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/emerging_en
- 9.IARC at https://www.iarc.fr/
- 10.International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP): Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (100 kHz to 300 GHz) Appendix B: Health Risk Assessment Literature ICNIRP at https://www.icnirp.org/en/activities/public-consultation/consultation-1.html (2018)
- 12.Lin, J.C.: Radio-frequency radiation safety and health: recent activities on radio-frequency exposure guidelines. URSI Radio Sci. Bull. 2014(351), 73–74 (2014)Google Scholar
- 13.International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP): Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (Up to 300 GHz). Health Phys. 74, 494–522 (1998)Google Scholar
- 14.Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE): IEEE C95.l-2005—Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz. New York, IEEE Press (2005)Google Scholar
- 15.US Federal Communications Commission, Office of Engineering and Technology: Evaluating Compliance with FCC Specified Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation. OET Bulletin 65, Washington, DC (1997)Google Scholar
- 16.Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection Standards and Policies at http://www.wireless-health.org.br/downloads/LASR2010-ProtectionStandards-Policies.pdf
- 17.User Manual for TS-EMF, Portable EMF Measurement System, Version 6.1.50, Rohde & Schwarz Test and Measurement Division, Munich (2010)Google Scholar