Marine Microbe Stress Responses to Bacteriophage Infection



Bacteriophages are bacteria-specific viral predators and exist wherever bacteria thrive. In order to evade phage infection and killing, bacteria have evolved diverse defense strategies. Phages rapidly coevolve with their hosts to overcome the obstacles of host defense systems, resulting in a constant molecular arms race. The extensive coevolution of both phage and host has led to considerable diversity of both bacterial and phage defensive and offensive strategies. This predator-prey dynamic equilibrium has several profound impacts, ranging from global nutrient cycling, to human health and disease, and to food and biotechnology industries. In this chapter, we highlight the antiviral mechanisms of bacteria that act at every stage of phage life cycle, including phage adsorption and DNA injection interference, phage assembly interference, restriction-modification systems, abortive infection systems, and CRISPR systems.


Bacteriophage Antiviral strategy Stress response 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Marine Genetic Resource, Third Institute of OceanographyMinistry of Natural ResourcesXiamenChina
  2. 2.Institute of Oceanology and College of Animal SciencesFujian Agriculture and Forestry UniversityFuzhouChina
  3. 3.College of Life SciencesZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina

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