Focus Group Interview

  • Krittinee NuttavuthisitEmail author


The focus group interview is a data collection technique that has received great interest among marketing practitioners. By inviting a group of people to exchange their views about certain subjects with a moderator to facilitate the discussion, the focus group could produce information in a rather quick and cost-effective way.


  1. Almansour BS (2010) On non‐Arabic speaking Muslims. Griffith Work Pap Pragmat Intercult Commun 3(1):39–49Google Scholar
  2. Barbour RS, Kitzinger J (eds) (1999) Developing focus group research: politics, theory and practice. Sage Publications Ltd, Thousand Oaks, CAGoogle Scholar
  3. Batonda G, Perry C (2003) Influence of culture on relationship development processes in overseas Chinese/Australian networks. Eur J Mark 37(11/12):1548–1574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Belk RW, Fischer E, Kozinets R (2013) Qualitative consumer & marketing research. Sage Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. Belzile AJ, Oberg G (2012) Where to begin? Grappling with how to use participant interaction in focus group design. Qualitative Research 12(4):459–472. Scholar
  6. Berg BL (1998) Qualitative research methods for the social sciences. Pearson, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Bloor M et al (2001) Focus Groups in Social Research. Sage Publications, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boateng W (2012) Evaluating the Efficacy of Focus Group Discussion (FGD) in Qualitative Social Research. International Journal of Business and Social Science 3(7):54–57Google Scholar
  9. Calder BJ (1977) Focus groups and the nature of qualitative marketing research. J Mark Res 14(3):353–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Catterall M, Maclaran P (1997) Focus group data and qualitative analysis programs: coding the moving picture as well as the snapshots. Sociological Research Online 2(1):1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Catterall M, Maclaren P (2006) Focus Groups in Marketing Research in Handbook Of Qualitative Research Methods In Marketing. Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, pp 3–18Google Scholar
  12. Chen MJ (2002) Transcending paradox: The Chinese “middle way” perspective. Asia Pacific Journal of Management 19(2/3):179–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen S, Lamberti L (2015) Entering the dragon’s nest: exploring Chinese upper-class consumers’ perception of luxury. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal 18 (1):4-29. doi:10.110S/QMR-01-2013-0002Google Scholar
  14. Cooper JC (1990) Taoism: The Way of the Mystic. Wellingborough (in press), The AqarianGoogle Scholar
  15. Denzin NK (1989) The research act: A theoretical Introduction to Sociological Methods, 3rd edn. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  16. Eckhardt GM (2004) The role of culture in conducting trustworthy and credible qualitative business research in China. In: Marschan-Piekkari R, Welch C (eds) Handbook of Qualitative Research Methods for International Business. Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, Cheltenham, UK, pp 402–420Google Scholar
  17. Finch H, Lewis J (2003) Focus groups. In: Ritchie J, Lewis J (eds) Qualitative research practice: a guide for social science students and researchers. Sage Publications, London, pp 170–198Google Scholar
  18. Fletcher R, Fang T (2006) Assessing the impact of culture on relationship creation and network formation in emerging Asian markets. Eur J Mark 40(3/4):430–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hall E (1976) Beyond culture. Doubleday, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Holmes H, Tangtongtavy S (1995) Working with the Thais. White Lotus, BangkokGoogle Scholar
  21. Hydén LC, Bülow PH (2003) Who’s talking: drawing conclusions from focus groups–some methodological considerations. Int J Soc Res Methodol 6(4):305–321. Scholar
  22. Imahori TT, Cupach WR (1994) A cross-cultural comparison of the interpretation and management of face: U.S. American and Japanese responses to embarrassing predicaments. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 18 (2):193–219. doi: Scholar
  23. Jie GF, Timothy HR, Aubrey RF (2014) Fashion globally: A cross-cultural and generational examination. Qual Market Res Int J 17(3):172–191Google Scholar
  24. Kawashima T (1967) Nipponjin on ho-ishiki (The Japanese consciousness of law). Iwanami, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  25. Kim MS, Hunter JE (1995) A test of an ethno-cultural model of conflict styles. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Speech Communication Association, San Antenio, TXGoogle Scholar
  26. Kozinets RV (2010) Observation Methods. Wiley International Encyclopedia of Marketing 2:219–226Google Scholar
  27. Lebra T (1976) Japanese patterns of behavior. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu (in press)Google Scholar
  28. Liamputtong P (2011) Focus Group Methodology: Principles and Practices. Sage Publications, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Libresco JD (1983) Focus groups: Madison Avenue meets public policy. Public Opinion August/September: 51–53Google Scholar
  30. Lunt P, Livingstone S (1996) Rethinking the focus group in media and communications research. Journal of Communication 46(2):79–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Markovà I, Linell P, Grossen M et al (2007) Dialogue in Focus Groups: Exploring Socially Shared Knowledge. Equinox, LondonjaiswalGoogle Scholar
  32. Merton RK (1987) The focused interview and focus groups. Public Opinion Quarterly 51:550–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Merton RK, Fiske M, Kendall PL (1990) The Focused Interview: a manual of problems and procedures, 2nd edn. Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Miyauchi Y, Perry C (1999) Marketing fresh fruit to Japanese consumers: exploring issues for Australian exporters. Eur J Mark 33(1/2):196–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Morgan D (1997) Focus Groups as Qualitative Research. Sage Publications, Thousand OaksCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Morgan DL (1989) Focus groups as qualitative research. Sage Publications, Newbury ParkGoogle Scholar
  37. Morgan DL (1996) Focus groups. Ann Rev Sociol 22(1):129–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nees G (2000) Germany: unraveling an enigma. Intercultural Press, Nicholas Brealey, London, p 93Google Scholar
  39. Nguyen MT, Terlouw C, Pilot A (2006) Culturally appropriate pedagogy: the case of group learning in a Confucian Heritage Culture context. Intercultural Educ 17(1):1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Oc B, Daniels M, BASHSHUR MR, Greguras GJ, LeMenestrel M, (2013) Leader humility in Singapore. Research collection Lee Kong Chian School of BusinessGoogle Scholar
  41. Pornpitakpan C, Francis NP (2000) The effect of cultural differences, source expertise, and argument strength on persuasion: an experiment with Canadians and Thais. J Int Consum Market 13(1):77–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ryan J, Al Sheedi YM, White G, Watkins D (2015) Respecting the culture: undertaking focus groups in Oman. Qual Res 15(3):373–388. Scholar
  43. Samovar L, Porter R, McDaniel E (2009) Communication between cultures (International Student edition). Cengage Learning, Boston, MA, p 196Google Scholar
  44. Seymour DT (1988) Marketing research: qualitative methods for the marketing professional. Probus Publishing Company, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  45. Stewart DW, Shamdasani PM (1990) Focus groups: theory and practice. Newbury Park, Sage, CAGoogle Scholar
  46. Stokes D, Bergin R (2006) Methodology or “methodolatry”? An evaluation of focus groups and depth interviews. Qual Market Res 9(1):26–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sussman S, Burton D, Dent CW, Stacy AW, Flay BR (1991) Use of focus groups in developing an adolescent tobacco use cessation program: Collective norm effects. J Appl Soc Psychol 21(21):1772–1782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sweet C (2001) Designing and conducting virtual focus groups. Qual Market Res: Int J 4(3):130–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ting-Toomey S (1994) Managing conflict in intimate intercultural relationships. In: Cahn D (ed) Intimate conflict in personal relationships. Erlbaum, New Jersey, pp 47–70Google Scholar
  50. Tuckman BW, Jensen Mary AC (1977) Stages of small-group development revisited. Group Org Manage 2(4):419–427Google Scholar
  51. Turner ME, Pratkanis AR (1998) Twenty-five years of groupthink theory and research: lessons from the evaluation of a theory. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process 73(2/3):105–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wilkinson S (1998) Focus groups in feminist research: power, interaction, and the co-construction of meaning. Women’s Studies International Forum 21(1):111–125. Scholar
  53. Winslow W, Honein G, Elzubeir MA (2002) Seeking emirati women’s voices: the use of focus groups with an Arab population. Qual Health Res 12(4):566–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Yang KS (1981) Social orientation and individual modernity among chinese students in Taiwan. J Soc Psychol 113(2):159–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Yau OHM (1988) Chinese cultural values: their dimensions and marketing implications. Eur J Mark 22(5):44–57. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sasin Graduate Institute of Business AdministrationChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand

Personalised recommendations