Effect of Waveform Coding on Stepped Frequency Modulated Pulsed Radar Transmit Signals

  • G. Priyanga
  • G. A. Shanmugha SundaramEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 910)


The choice of a waveform in a radar system plays a predominant role in characterizing the radars’ ability to differentiate two closely spaced targets in both range and Doppler domains. RADAR waveforms are broadly categorized into two types, viz. pulsed or continuous waveform. A waveform can be analyzed in both time and frequency domains. The frequency domain analysis informs about the range and Doppler resolution of the radar target. The ambiguity of the transmitted waveform in both range and Doppler domain is used to understand the critical parameters used in the design and performance of any radar system. Precise radar measurements like range and Doppler calculation need higher resolution in both domains. But, in a pulsed radar system, there is an important factor of trade-off between range resolution and sensitivity, that necessitates pulses of smaller width, while the pulse energy in the transmitted waveform requires a longer pulse duration. An approach to overcome this trade-off is pulse compression which modulates the pulses to be transmitted. In the work reported here, a new approach to pulse compression technique is provided by modulating the transmitted waveform of a stepped frequency waveform (SFW) with orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM). The reported work evaluates the performance of frequency spacings that are either uniform or non-uniform in the SFW waveform in terms of their maximum detection capability, observed from the graphs of delay and Doppler cuts in the ambiguity function plot. Various phase coding techniques are also used to define the non-uniform spaced SFW. The robustness of radar waveforms in terms of their static and dynamic resolution parameters, as well as their ambiguities, is also evaluated.


SFW Pulse compression OFDM Range resolution Doppler resolution Ambiguity 


  1. 1.
    Rihaczek, A.W.: Principles of High-Resolution Radar. McGraw-Hill, New York (1969)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Levanon, N., Mozeson, E.: Radar Signals, 1st edn. Wiley, New York (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pierre, S., Siclet, C., Lacaille, N.: Analysis and design of OFDM/OQAM systems based on lterbank theory. IEEE Trans. Sig. Process. 50(5), 1170–1183 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ankarao, V., Srivatsa, S., Shanmugha Sundaram, G.A.: Evaluation of pulse compression techniques in X-band radar systems. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Wireless Communications Signal Processing and Networking. IEEE (2017)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Carpentier, M.H.: Evolution of pulse compression in the radar field. In: Proceedings of 9th European Microwave Conference. IEEE (1979)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pramudita, I.R.: Implementasi Radar Doppler dengan Sinyal orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) pada Perangkat berbasis software define radio (SDR). Doctoral dissertation. Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (2017)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rihaczek, A.W.: Radar waveform selection-a simplified approach. IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 6, 1078–1086 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Frederiksen, F.B., Prasad, R.: An overview of OFDM and related techniques towards development of future wireless multimedia communications. In: Proceedings of Radio and Wireless Conference. IEEE (2002)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Li, G., Meng, H., Xia, X.G., Peng, Y.N.: Range and velocity estimation of moving targets using multiple stepped-frequency pulse trains. Sensors 8(2), 1343–1350 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mahafza, B.R.: Radar Systems Analysis and Design Using MATLAB, 3rd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2013)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Skolnik, M.I.: Introduction to Radar Systems. McGraw Hill Book Company Inc., New York (1962)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Huimin, L., Jingya, Z.: Analysis of a combined waveform of linear frequency modulation and phase coded modulation. In: Proceedings of 11th International Symposium on Antennas, Propagation and EM Theory. IEEE (2016)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hamming, R.W.: Error detecting and error correcting codes. Bell Labs Tech. J. 29(2), 147–160 (1950)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Farnane, K., Minaoui, K., Rouijel, A., Aboutajdine, D. Analysis of the ambiguity function for phase-coded waveforms. In: Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications. IEEE (2015)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Amrita School of EngineeringCenter for Computational Engineering and Networking, Amrita Vishwa VidyapeethamCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Amrita School of EngineeringAmrita Vishwa VidyapeethamCoimbatoreIndia
  3. 3.Sponsored by the National Instruments Inc. (USA), as part of the NI Academic Research Grant 2017, and conducted at the SIERS Research Laboratory, ASE CoimbatoreAmrita UniversityCoimbatoreIndia

Personalised recommendations