Exploring 3D Interactions for Number Entry and Menu Selection in Virtual Reality Environment

Conference paper
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 135)


Graphical user interfaces (GUI) on mobiles involve user interaction of touch input on a two-dimensional surface. With advances in virtual reality (VR), possibilities of three-dimensional 3D GUIs will emerge. Current study on designing interfaces for VR deals with incorporating rules of 2D GUIs. The question here is that whether such an approach is optimal for a VR environment? Designing interactions and interfaces for VR deals with issues that are different from flat 2D screens like field of view, orientation of the user, having no defined reference plane and depth-related issues. In order to solve such ambiguities in the design of VR interfaces, an experiment was conducted with 30 users comparing three different keypad interfaces in the virtual world via head-gaze interaction. Subsequently, inferences drawn from this study were used to design and prototype two more interfaces where hand gesture (HG) and natural object interaction (NOI) based techniques were explored using a single layout of dial pads and menu items. A research experiment comparing the two interaction techniques for an online money transaction scenario was designed and conducted with 20 different users. The paper discusses different interaction techniques and compares 2D dial pad interface with a 3D interface. The paper also discusses insights on the task performance, the usability of such interfaces and cognitive workload while using them.


Virtual reality 3D GUI User testing Workload analysis Interaction technique 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of DesignIndian Institute of Technology GuwahatiAssamIndia

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