Sustainable Soil Management Practices in Olive Groves

  • Victor KavvadiasEmail author
  • Georgios Koubouris


Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a common cultivated tree crop in the Mediterranean Basin. Inappropriate cultivation practices (i.e. excessive tillage and application of herbicides, the absence of organic amendments, the burning of pruning residues in situ) lead, in combination with the Mediterranean climate, to the depletion of soil organic matter, erosion, desertification and degradation of water resources. Strategies based on changes in the land management (e.g. cover crops and green manure, restriction of tillage, recycling of agricultural wastes and pruning residues), have been reported to enhance soil structure, increase soil fertility, decrease soil erosion, increase the C stored in soil, and reduce atmospheric CO2. This chapter highlights soil management techniques that could promote the conservation of the productive olive grove system and thus contribute to the sustainability of the natural resources. During olive tree growth and olive oil production a large quantity of plant residues and mill wastes are produced. The implementation of alternative olive cultivation techniques (reduced/no tillage, plant residue and weed management, tree pruning, etc.) has not been systematically tested under the prevailing conditions of the Mediterranean olive forest. Although there are multiple specific studies taking into account specific practices in selected regions, a holistic approach for the Mediterranean olive groves has not yet been known. The design, the development and the adoption of an integrated soil management system in olive groves, adjustable to local soil climatic conditions is proposed, among further research priorities.


Olive Soil management Residue management Cover crops Tillage 



With the contribution of the LIFE + financial instrument of the European Union to project LIFE11 ENV/GR/942 OLIVE-CLIMA.


  1. Abiven S, Menassero S, Chenu C (2009) The effect of organic inputs over time on soil aggregate stability – a literature analysis. Soil Biol Biochem 41:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alliaume F, Rossing WAH, Tittonell P, Jorge G, Dogliotti S (2014) Reduced tillage and cover crops improve water capture and reduce erosion of fine textured soils in raised bed tomato systems. Agric Ecosyst Environ 183:127–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alvarez C, Alvarez CR, Costantini A, Basanta M (2014) Carbon and nitrogen sequestration in soils under different management in the semi-arid Pampa (Argentina). Soil Till Res 142:25–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arampatzis G, Hatzigiannakis E, Pisinaras V, Kourgialas N, Psarras G, Kinigopoulou V, Panagopoulos A, Koubouris G (2018) Soil water content and olive tree yield responses to soil management, irrigation, and precipitation in a hilly Mediterranean area. J Water Clim Change 9(4):672–678Google Scholar
  5. Arrue JL, Cantero-Martlnez C, Cardarelli A, et al (2007) Comprehensive inventory and assessment of existing knowledge on sustainable agriculture in the Mediterranean platform of KASSA (pp 27). KASSA project (Knowledge assessment and sharing on sustainable agriculture) a European Commission-funded project (DG-Research – Contract no. GOCE-CT-2004-505582)Google Scholar
  6. Arshad ΜΑ, Coen GM (1992) Characterization of soil quality: physical and chemical criteria. Am J Altern Agric 7:25–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Balesdent J, Chenu C, Balabane M (2000) Relationship of soil organic matter dynamics to physical protection and tillage. Soil Tillage Res 53:215–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Batey T (2009) Soil compaction and soil management—a review. Soil Use Manag 25:335–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bechara E, Papafilippaki A, Doupis G, Sofo A, Koubouris G (2018) Nutrient dynamics, soil properties and microbiological aspects in an irrigated olive orchard managed with five different management systems involving soil tillage, cover crops and compost. J Water Clim Change.
  10. Ben Ahmed C, Rouina Ben B, Boukhris M (2009) Chapter 10: Olive tree growth in Tunisia: types, limitations and influences. In: Grossberg SP (ed) Forest management. Nova Science Publishers, HauppaugeGoogle Scholar
  11. Ben-Gal A (2011) Salinity and olive: from physiological responses to orchard management. Isr J Plant Sci 59:15–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Benitez E, Nogales R, Campos M, Ruano F (2006) Biochemical variability of olive-orchard soils under different management systems. Appl Soil Ecol 32:221–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bonanomi G, Antignani V, Capodilupo M, Scala F (2010) Identifying the characteristics of organic soil amendments that suppress soilborne plant diseases. Soil Biol Biochem 42:136–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Borrero C, Trillas MI, Ordovás J, Tello JC, Avilés M (2004) Predictive factors for the suppression of Fusarium wilt of tomato in plant growth media. Phytopathology 94:1094–1101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brevik EC (2012) Soils and climate change: gas fluxes and soil processes. Soil Horiz 53:12–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Calatrava J, Franco JA (2011) Using pruning residues as mulch: analysis of its adoption and process of diffusion in Southern Spain olive orchards. J Environ Manag 92:620–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Caruso G, Gucci R, Sifola M (2011) Soil management affects yield components of young olive trees under deficit irrigation. Acta Hortic 924:219–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Casacchia T, Sofo A, Zelasco S, Perri E, Toscano P (2012) In situ olive mill residual co-composting for soil organic fertility restoration and by-product sustainable reuse. Ital J Agron 7:35–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Castro J, Fernandez-Ondoρo E, Rodriguez C, Lallena AM, Sierra M, Aguilar J (2008) Effects of different olive-grove management systems on the organic carbon and nitrogen content of the soil in Jaιn (Spain). Soil Tillage Res 98:56–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. CEC (1992) CORINE soil erosion risk and important land resources – in the southern regions of the European Community EUR 13233. Office for the Official Publications of the European Community, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  21. Cerdà A, Lavee H, Romero-Díaz A, Hooke J, Montanarella L (2010) Soil erosion and degradation on Mediterranean type ecosystems. Land Degrad Dev 21:71–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cirio U (1997) Agrochemicals and environmental impact in olive farming. Olivae 65:32–39Google Scholar
  23. Corleto A, Cazzato E (2008) Effects of different soil management practices on production, quality and soil physico-chemical characteristics of an olive grove in Southern Italy. Acta Hortic 767:319–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dabney SM, Delgado JA, Meisinger JJ, Schomberg HH, Liebig MA, Kaspar T, Mitchell J, Reeves W (2010) Using cover crops and cropping systems for nitrogen management. In: Delgado JA, Follett RF (eds) Advances in nitrogen management for water quality. SWCS, Ankeny, pp 231–282Google Scholar
  25. De Freitas PL, Landers JN (2014) The transformation of agriculture in Brazil through development and adoption of zero tillage conservation agriculture. Int Soil Water Conserv Res 1:35–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. De Graaff J, Eppink LAAJ (1999) Olive oil production and soil conservation in southern Spain in relation to EU subsidy policies. Land Use Policy 16:259–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dexter AR, Richard G, Arrouays D, Czyz EA, Jolivet C, Duval O (2008) Complexed organic matter controls soil physical properties. Geoderma 144:620–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Diacono M, Montemurro F (2010) Long-term effects of organic amendments on soil fertility. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 30:401–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Donn S, Wheatley RE, McKenzie BM, Loades KW, Hallett PD (2014) Improved soil fertility from compost amendment increases root growth and reinforcement of surface soil on slope. Ecol Eng 71:458–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. European Commission (2015) Closing the loop – an EU action plan for the circular economy, Brussels, 2 December 2015 COM(2015) 614 final.
  31. Farzi R, Gholami M, Baninasab B, Gheysari M (2017) Evaluation of different mulch materials for reducing soil surface evaporation in semi-arid region. Soil Use Manage 33:120–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fernández-Escobar R, García-Novelo JM, Molina-Spria C, Parra MA (2012) An approach to nitrogen balance in olive orchards. Sci Hortic 135:219–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fernández-Romero ML, Lozano-García B, Parras-Alcántara L, Collins CD, Clark JM (2016) Effects of land management on different forms of soil carbon in olive groves in Mediterranean areas. Land Degrad Dev 27:1186–1195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ferraj B, Teqja Z, Susaj L et al (2011) Effects of different soil management practices on production and quality of olive groves in southern Albania. J Food Agric Environ 9:430–433Google Scholar
  35. Ferrara G, Mazzeo A, Matarrese AMS, Pacifico A, Fracchiolla IM, Al Chamill Z, Lasorella IC, Montemurro P, Mondelli D (2015) Soil management systems: effects on soil properties and weed flora. S Afr J Enol Vitic 36:11–20Google Scholar
  36. Franzluebbers AJ (2002) Water infiltration and soil structure related to organic matter and its stratification with depth. Soil Tillage Res 66:197–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Freibauer A, Rounsevell MDA, Smith P, Verhagen J (2004) Carbon sequestration in the agricultural soils of Europe. Geoderma 122:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fresco LO (1996) Agriculture in the lower Guadalhorce Valley. Sustainable land use. Practical guide for the Alora Region, Spain. Agricultural University, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  39. Gerontidis St DV, Kosmas C, Detsis B, Marathianou M, Zafirious T, Tsara M (2001) The effect of moldboard plow on tillage erosion along a hillslope. J Soil Water Conserv 56:147–152Google Scholar
  40. Gómez JA, Sobrinho TA, Giráldez JV, Fereres E (2009a) Soil-management effects on runoff, erosion and soil properties in an olive grove of southern Spain. Soil Tillage Res 102:5–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gómez JA, Guzmán MG, Giráldez JV, Fereres E (2009b) The influence of cover crops and tillage on water and sediment yield, and on nutrient, and organic matter losses in an olive orchard on a sandy loam soil. Soil Tillage Res 106:137–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gómez-Muñoz B, Valero-Valenzuela JD, Hinojosa MB, García-Ruiz R (2016) Management of tree pruning residues to improve soil organic carbon in olive groves. Eur J Soil Biol 74:104–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Goss MJ, Tubeileh A, Goorahoo D (2013) A review of the use of organic amendments and the risk to human health. Adv Agron 120:275–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gruhn P, Goletti F, Yudelman M (2000) Integrated nutrient management, soil fertility, and sustainable agriculture: current issues and future challenges. Food, agriculture, and the environment, Discussion Paper 32. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington DC, pp 15–18Google Scholar
  45. Gucci R, Caruso G, Bertolla C et al (2012) Changes of soil properties and tree performance induced by soil management in a high-density olive orchard. Eur J Agron 41:18–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. He SL, Niu QG, Li YY, Nie YL, Hou MF (2015) Factors associated with the diversification of the microbial communities within different natural and artificial saline environments. Ecol Eng 83:476–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hernández AJ, Lacasta C, Pastor J (2005) Effects of different management practices on soil conservation and soil water in a rainfed olive orchard. Agric Water Manag 77:232–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) (2007) Production techniques in olive growing, 1st edn. IOOC, Madrid, May 2007Google Scholar
  49. IPCC (2000) Special report on land use, land-use change and forestry. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  50. Jarecki MK, Lal R (2003) Crop management for soil carbon sequestration. Crit Rev Plant Sci 22:471–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jarecki MK, Lal R (2005) Soil organic carbon sequestration rates in two long-term no-till experiments in Ohio. Soil Sci 170:280–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jin H, Hongwen L, Rasaily Rabi G, Qingjie W, Guohua C, Yanbo S, Xiaodong Q, Lijin L (2011) Soil properties and crop yields after 11 years of no tillage farming in wheat–maize cropping system on North China Plain. Soil Tillage Res 113:48–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jokela WE, Grabber JH, Karlen DL, Balser TC, Palmquist DE (2009) Cover crop and liquid manure effects on soil quality indicators in a corn silage system. Agron J 101:727–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kabiri V, Raiesi F, Ghazavi MA (2015) Six years of different tillage systems affected aggregate-associated SOM in a semi-arid loam soil from Central Iran. Soil Tillage Res 154:114–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kavvadias V, Papadopoulou M, Vavoulidou E et al (2018a) Chapter 10 – Effects of carbon inputs on chemical and microbial properties of soil in irrigated and rainfed olive groves. In: Muñoz MÁ, Zornoza R (eds) Soil Management and Climate Change. Academic, London, pp 137–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kavvadias V, Papadopoulou M, Vavoulidou E et al (2018b) Effect of addition of organic materials and irrigation practices on soil quality in olive groves. J Water Clim Change 9(4):775–785Google Scholar
  57. Kavvadias V, Papadopoulou M, Vavoulidou E et al (2018c) Effect of sustainable management of olive tree residues on soil fertility in irrigated and rain-fed olive orchards. J Water Clim Change 9(4):764–774Google Scholar
  58. Kosmas C, Danalatos NG, Cammeraat LH et al (1997) The effect of land use on runoff and soil erosion rates under Mediterranean conditions. Catena 29:45–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Koubouris GC, Kourgialas NN, Kavvadias V, Digalaki N, Psarras G (2017) Sustainable agricultural practices for improving soil carbon and nitrogen content in relation to water availability – an adapted approach to Mediterranean olive groves. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 48:2687–2700Google Scholar
  60. Kourgialas NN, Doupis G, Papafilippaki A, Psarras G, Koubouris G (2016) Seasonal variation of soil moisture in irrigated olive trees. Procedia Eng 162:471–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kourgialas NN, Doupis G, Psarras G, Sergentani C, Digalaki N, Koubouris G (2017) Soil management and compost effects on salinity and seasonal water storage in a Mediterranean drought-affected olive tree area. Desalin Water Treat:1–7Google Scholar
  62. Kushwaha CP, Tripathi SK, Singh K (2000) Variations in soil microbial biomass and N availability due to residue and tillage management in a dryland rice agroecosystem. Soil Tillage Res 56:153–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Loumou A, Giourga C (2003) Olive groves: “the life and identity of the Mediterranean”. Agric Hum Values 20:87–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lozano-García B, Parras-Alcántara L, del Toro M (2011) The effects of agricultural management with oil mill by-products on surface soil properties, runoff and soil losses in southern Spain. Catena 85:187–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mando A, Ouattara B, Sédogo M, Stroosnijder L, Ouattara K, Brussaard L, Vanlauwe B (2005) Long-term effect of tillage and manure application on soil organic fractions and crop performance under Sudano-sahelian conditions. Soil Tillage Res 80:95–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Manios T (2004) The composting potential of different organic solid wastes: experience from the island of Crete. Environ Intern 29:1079–1089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Margaris NS, Mardiris Th, Chairopoulos G (1988) The ‘retreat’ of olive groves-forest. Proceedings of scientific meeting, the Aegean olive groves, February 25–27, pp 18–25. Mytilini, Greece: Edition Elaiourgiki [in Greek]Google Scholar
  68. Markakis E, Koubouris G, Kavroulakis G, Psarras G, Sergentani, C, Kalaitzaki A (2017) Pruning residue management associated pathogens in olive. Working Group “Integrated protection of olive crops”. In: Perdikis D, Stathas G, Papadopoulos N, Lucchi A (eds) Proceedings of the 7th meeting at Kalamata (Greece), 11–14 May, 2015. ISBN 978-92-9067-305-7 [XXIV + 166 pp] IOBC-WPRS Bulletin vol 121, 161–165Google Scholar
  69. Martínez-Mena M, López J, Almagro M, Boix-Fayos C, Albaladejo J (2008) Effect of water erosion and cultivation on the soil carbon stock in a semiarid area of South-East Spain. Soil Tillage Res 99:119–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Merante P, Dibari C, Ferrise R et al (2017) Adopting soil organic carbon management practices in soils of varying quality: implications and perspectives in Europe. Soil Tillage Res 165:95–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Metzidakis I, Kosmas C, Moustakas N, Koubouris G, Kassidonis E (2005) Effect of different cultural systems on the environment in marginal olive orchards: case study in Crete (Greece). “International course on the olive tree and environmental protection” International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) Reus, Spain, 23–30 October 2005Google Scholar
  72. Metzidakis I, Martinez-Vilela A, Castro Nieto G, Basso B (2008) Intensive olive orchards on sloping land: good water and pest management are essential. J Environ Manag 89(2):120–128. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Metzidakis I, Koubouris G, Kassidonis E, Sergendani C, Giannakaki A, Kosmas C, Moustakas N (2012) Impact of soil management practices on physical and chemical properties of soils formed in marls, conglomerates or schists in sloping olive groves. Acta Hortic 949Google Scholar
  74. Montanaro G, Celano G, Dichio B, Xiloyannis C (2010) Effects of soil-protecting agricultural practices on soil organic carbon and productivity in fruit tree orchards. Land Degrad Dev 21:132–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Montanaro G, Dichio B, Bati CB, Xiloyannis C (2012) Soil management affects carbon dynamics and yield in a Mediterranean peach orchard. Agric Ecosyst Environ 161:46–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Montes-Borrego M, Navas-Cortés JA, Landa BB (2013) Linking microbial functional diversity of olive rhizosphere soil to management systems in commercial orchards in southern Spain. Agric Ecosyst Environ 181:169–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Moreno B, Garcia-Rodriguez S, Cañizares R, Castro J, Benítez E (2009) Rainfed olive farming in south-eastern Spain: Long-term effect of soil management on biological indicators of soil quality. Agric Ecosyst Environ 131:333–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Nieto OM, Castro J, Fernández E, Smith P (2010) Simulation of soil organic carbon stocks in a Mediterranean olive grove under different soil-management systems using the Roth C model. Soil Use Manage 26:118–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Nieto OM, Castro J, Fernández E (2011) Long-term effects of residue management on soil fertility in Mediterranean olive grove: simulating carbon sequestration with Roth C model. In: Burcu E, Gungor O (eds) Principles, application and assessment in soil science. Intech, Rijeka, pp 130–150Google Scholar
  80. Nieto OM, Castro J, Fernández E (2012) Sustainable agricultural practices for Mediterranean olive groves. The effect of soil management on soil properties. Span J Soil Sci 2:70–77Google Scholar
  81. Ordóñez-Fernández R, Repullo-Ruibérriz de Torres M, Román-Vázquez J, González-Fernández P, Carbonell-Bojollo R (2015) Macronutrients released during the decomposition of pruning residues used as plant cover and their effect on soil fertility. J Agric Sci 153:615–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Palese AM, Magno R, Casacchia T et al (2013) Chemical, biochemical and microbiological properties of soils from abandoned and extensively cultivated olive orchards. Sci World J 496278Google Scholar
  83. Palese AM, Vignozzi N, Celano G et al (2014) Influence of soil management on soil physical characteristics and water storage in a mature rainfed olive orchard. Soil Tillage Res 144:96–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Panagos P, Meusburger K, Ballabio C, Borrelli P, Alewell C (2014) Soil erodibility in Europe: a high-resolution dataset based on LUCAS. Sci Total Environ 479–480:189–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Park JH, Lamb D, Paneerselvam P, Choppala G, Bolan N, Chung JW (2011) Role of organic amendments on enhanced bioremediation of heavy metal(loid) contaminated soils. J Hazard Mater 185:549–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pastor M (2004) Sistemas de manejo de suelo. In: Barranco D, Fernández-Escobar R, Rallo L (eds) El cultivo del olivo. Mundi Prensa, Madrid, pp 231–285Google Scholar
  87. Paustian K, Six J, Elliott ET, Hunt HW (2000) Management options for reducing CO2 emissions from agricultural soils. Biogeochemistry 48:147–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pienkowski M, Beaufoy G (2002) The environmental impact of olive oil production in the European Union: practical options for improving the environmental impact. European Forum on Nature Conservation and PastoralismGoogle Scholar
  89. Piotrowska A, Rao MA, Scotti R, Gianfreda L (2011) Changes in soil chemical and biochemical properties following amendment with crude and dephenolized olive mill waste water (OMW). Geoderma 161:8–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ramakrishna A, Tam HM, Wani SP, Long TD (2006) Effects of mulch on soil temperature, moisture, weed infestation and yield of groundnut in northern Vietnam. Field Crops Res 95:115–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ramos ME, Benítez E, García PA, Robles AB (2010) Cover crops under different managements vs. frequent tillage in almond orchards in semiarid conditions: effects on soil quality. Appl Soil Ecol 44:6–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rasmussen PE, Collins HP (1991) Long-term impacts of tillage, fertilizer, and crop residue on soil organic matter in temperate semiarid regions. Adv Agron 45:93–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Regni L, Nasini L, Ilarioni L, Brunori A, Massaccesi L, Agnelli A, Proietti P (2017) Long term amendment with fresh and composted solid olive mill waste on olive grove affects carbon sequestration by prunings, fruits, and soil. Front Plant Sci 7:2042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rewald B, Leuschner C, Wiesman Z, Ephrath JE (2011) Influence of salinity on root hydraulic properties of three olive varieties. Plant Biosyst 145:12–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rodríguez-Lizana A, Espejo-Pérez AJ, González-Fernández P, Ordóñez-Fernández R (2008) Pruning residues as an alternative to traditional tillage to reduce erosion and pollutant dispersion in olive groves. Water Air Soil Pollut 193:165–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rui Y, Murphy DV, Wang X, Hoylea FC (2016) Microbial respiration, but not biomass, responded linearly to increasing light fraction organic matter input: consequences for carbon sequestration. Sci Rep 6:35496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Russo G, Vivaldi GA, De Gennaro B, Camposeo S (2015) Environmental sustainability of different soil management techniques in a high-density olive orchard. J Clean Prod 107:498–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sánchez B, Álvaro-Fuentes J, Cunningham R, Iglesias A (2014) Towards mitigation of greenhouse gases by small changes in farming practices: understanding local barriers in Spain. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob 4:1–34Google Scholar
  99. Sánchez B, Iglesias A, McVittie A, Alvaro-Fuentes J, Ingram J, Mills J, Lesschen JP, Kuikman P (2016) Management of agricultural soils for greenhouse gas mitigation: learning from a case study in NE Spain. J Environ Manag 170:37–981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sánchez-Monedero MA, Cayuela ML, Mondini C, Serramiá N, Roig A (2008) Potential of olive mill wastes for soil C sequestration. Waste Manag 28:767–773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sastre B, Ángeles Pérez-Jiménez M, Bienes R., García-Díaz A, and de Lorenzo C (2016) The effect of soil management on olive yield and VOO quality in a rainfed olive grove of Central Spain. J Chem Article ID 4974609, 15pagesGoogle Scholar
  102. Scotti R, Bonanomi G, Scelza R, Zoina A, Rao MA (2015) Organic amendments as sustainable tool to recovery fertility in intensive agricultural systems. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 15(2):333–352Google Scholar
  103. Sheehy J, Regina K, Alakukku L, Six J (2015) Impact of no-till and reduced tillage on aggregation and aggregate-associated carbon in northern European agroecosystems. Soil Tillage Res 150:107–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Smith P, Nabuurs GJ, Janssens IA et al (2008) Sectoral approaches to improve regional carbon budgets. Clim Chang 88:209–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Sofo A, Nuzzo V, Palese AM, Xiloyannis C, Celano G, Zukowskyj P, Dichio B (2005) Net CO2 storage in Mediterranean olive and peach orchards. Sci Hortic 107:17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sofo A, Palese AM, Casacchia T, Xiloyannis C (2014) Chapter 20 Sustainable soil management in olive orchards: effects on telluric microorganisms. In: Ahmad P, Rasool S (eds) Emerging technologies and management of crop stress tolerance volume 2: a sustainable approach. Academic, London, pp 471–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Soria L, Fernández E, Pastor M, Aguilar J, Muñoz JA (2005) Impact of olive-orchard cropping systems on some soil physical and chemicals properties in southern Spain. In: Faz A, Ortiz R, Mermut AR (eds) Advances in geoecology, vol 36. Catena Verlag, Reiskirchen, pp 428–435Google Scholar
  108. Toscano P, Casacchia T, Zaffina F (2009) The “in farm” olive mill residual composting for by-products sustainable reuse in the soils organic fertility restoration. In: Proceedings of the eighteenth symposium of the International Scientific Centre of Fertilizers—more sustainability in agriculture: new fertilizers and fertilization management, Rome, pp 116–121Google Scholar
  109. Varela MF, Scianca CM, Taboada MA, Rubio G (2014) Cover crop effects on soybean residue decomposition and P release in no-tillage systems of Argentina. Soil Tillage Res 143:59–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wells AT, Chan KY, Cornish PS (2000) Comparison of conventional and alternative vegetable farming systems on the properties of a yellow earth in New South Wales. Agric Ecosyst Environ 80:47–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Widmer F, Rasche F, Hartmann M, Fliessbach A (2006) Community structures and substrate utilization of bacteria in soils from organic and conventional farming systems of the DOK long-term field experiment. Appl Soil Ecol 33:294–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wu T, Milner H, Díaz-Pérez JC, Ji P (2015) Effects of soil management practices on soil microbial communities and development of southern blight in vegetable production. Appl Soil Ecol 91:58–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Xiloyannis C, Montanaro G, Dichio B (2016) Sustainable orchard management in semi-arid areas to improve water use efficiency and soil fertility. Acta Hortic:425–430Google Scholar
  114. Yassoglou N (1971) A study of the soils of Messara Valley in Crete. Greece Nuclear Research Centre, AthensGoogle Scholar
  115. Zomer R, Bossio AD, Sommer R, Verchot L (2017) Global sequestration potential of increased organic carbon in cropland soils. Sci Rep 7.
  116. Zornoza R, Mataix-Solera J, Guerrero C, Arcenegui V, Mataix-Beneyto J (2009) Comparison of soil physical, chemical, and biochemical properties among native forest, maintained and abandoned almond orchards in mountainous areas of eastern Spain. Arid Land Res Manage 23:267–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hellenic Agricultural Organization “DEMETER”, Department of Soil Science of AthensInstitute of Soil and Water ResourcesAthensGreece
  2. 2.Hellenic Agricultural Organization “DEMETER”Institute for Olive Tree, Subtropical Plants and ViticultureChaniaGreece

Personalised recommendations