Metabolites of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria for the Management of Soilborne Pathogenic Fungi in Crops

  • M. Jayaprakashvel
  • C. Chitra
  • N. Mathivanan


Soilborne pathogenic fungi are the most serious group of plant pathogens which cause huge yield losses to crop plants. Because of the complexity in the soil environment and plant disease development, management of plant diseases caused by soilborne pathogenic fungi appears a great challenge for all times. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria are important soil microbial communities which are for the past few decades successfully used for the promotion of plant growth and management of plant diseases. Though there are many options available for the management of soilborne pathogens such as agronomic practices, chemical control, and varietal resistance, the biological control using either PGPR or their metabolites offers promising prospects. Agrobacterium, Arthrobacter, Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Caulobacter, Chromobacterium, Erwinia, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, and Serratia are some of rhizobacteria found associated in the rhizosphere of many plants, while bacteria such as Allorhizobium, Azorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, and Rhizobium of the family Rhizobiaceae that are found inside the roots together contribute to the collective group of PGPR. Bacillus and Pseudomonas are the two most extensively characterized PGPR genera for their metabolites against plant pathogenic microorganisms including soilborne pathogenic fungi. The metabolites of PGPR contribute to their antagonistic potential by exerting mechanisms such as antibiosis, competition, and induced systemic resistance. Antibiotic metabolites of PGPR such phenazines, pyrrolnitrin, 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyoluteorin, viscosinamide, tensin, and iturins and volatile metabolites such as hydrogen cyanide and ammonia are having direct antagonistic activity against soilborne pathogenic fungi. Both bioprocess-mediated and genetic engineering-mediated optimization of metabolite production by PGPR have been approached for the production of bioactive metabolites. The metabolites of PGPR could be the potential choice for the effective management of plant diseases caused by soilborne pathogenic fungi because of their advantages such as easy formulation, targeted delivery, and curative effect on plant diseases.


PGPR Metabolites Antagonistic mechanisms Soilborne pathogens Plant diseases 



NM and CC acknowledge the facilities and support provided by the University of Madras. Author MJ thanks the management and authorities of AMET Deemed to be University for encouragement and facilities.


  1. Abanda-Nkpwatt D, Krimm U, Coiner HA, Schreiber L, Schwab W (2006) Plant volatiles can minimize the growth suppression of epiphytic bacteria by the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea in co-culture experiments. Environ Exp Bot 56(1):108–119Google Scholar
  2. Adesina MF, Grosch R, Lembke A, Vatchev TD, Smalla K (2009) In vitro antagonists of Rhizoctonia solani tested on lettuce: rhizosphere competence, biocontrol efficiency and rhizosphere microbial community response. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 69:67–74Google Scholar
  3. Ahemad M, Khan MS (2012) Evaluation of plant-growth promoting activities of rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida under herbicide stress. Ann Microbiol 62:1531–1540Google Scholar
  4. Ahemad M, Kibret M (2014) Mechanisms and applications of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: current perspective. J King Saud Univ Sci 26:1–20Google Scholar
  5. Ahsan T, Chen J, Wu Y, Irfan M, Shafi J (2016) Screening, identification, optimization of fermentation conditions, and extraction of secondary metabolites for the biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani AG-3. Biotechnol Biotechnol Equip 31(1):91–98Google Scholar
  6. Akram W, Anjum T, Ali B, Ahmad A (2013) Screening of native Bacillus strains to induce systemic resistance in tomato plants against Fusarium wilt in split root system and its field applications. Int J Agric Biol 15:1289–1294Google Scholar
  7. Alabouvette C, Steinberg C (2006) The soil as a reservoir for antagonists to plant diseases. In: Eilenberg J, Hokkanen H (eds) An ecological and societal approach to biological control. Progress in biological control, vol 2. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  8. Ahkami HA, White RA, Handakumbura PP, Jansson C (2017) Rhizosphere engineering: enhancing sustainable plant ecosystem productivity. Rhizosphere 3:233–243Google Scholar
  9. Arrebola E, Jacobs R, Korsten L (2010) Iturin A is the principal inhibitor in the biocontrol activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PPCB004 against postharvest fungal pathogens. J Appl Microbiol 108:386–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Awais M, Pervez A, Yaqub A, Shah MM (2010) Production of antimicrobial metabolites by Bacillus subtilis immobilized in polyacrylamide gel. Pak J Zool 42(3):267–275Google Scholar
  11. Baligh M, Conway K, Delgado (1996) Production of ammonia by Pseudomonas cepacia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa: quantification and effect on host and pathogen, pp 7–19. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barret M, Morrissey JP, Gara OF (2011) Functional genomics analysis of plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial traits involved in rhizosphere competence. Biol Fertil Soils 47:729–743Google Scholar
  13. Beneduzi A, Ambrosini A, Passaglia LMP (2012) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): their potential as antagonists and biocontrol agents. Genet Mol Biol 35(4):1044–1051PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Berendsen RL, Pieterse CMJ, Bakker PAHM (2012) The rhizosphere microbiome and plant health. Trends Plant Sci 17(8):478–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bhattacharyya PN, Jha DK (2012) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): emergence in agriculture. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 28:1327–1135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Blacutt AA, Mitchell TR, Bacon CW, Gold SE (2016) Bacillus mojavensis RRC101 lipopeptides provoke physiological and metabolic changes during antagonism against Fusarium verticillioides. MPMI 29:713–723PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bloemberg GV, Lugtenberg BJ (2001) Molecular basis of plant growth promotion and biocontrol by rhizobacteria. Curr Opin Plant Biol 4:343–350Google Scholar
  18. Bouizgarne B (2013) Bacteria for plant growth promotion and disease management. In: Maheshwari DK (ed) Bacteria in agrobiology: disease management. Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Boukaew S, Chuenchit S, Petcharat V (2011) Evaluation of Streptomyces spp. for biological control of Sclerotium root and stem rot and Ralstonia wilt of chili pepper. BioControl 56(3):365–374Google Scholar
  20. Cao Y, Pi H, Chandrangsu P, Li Y, Wang Y, Zhou H, Xiong H, Helmann JD, Cai Y (2018) Antagonism of Two Plant-Growth Promoting Bacillus velezensis Isolates Against Ralstonia solanacearum and Fusarium oxysporum. Sci Rep 8:4360PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Caulier S, Gillis A, Colau G, Licciardi F, Liépin M, Desoignies N, Bragard C (2018) Versatile antagonistic activities of soil-borne Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. against Phytophthora infestans and other potato pathogens. Front Microbiol 9:143PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Chen H, Wang L, Su C (2008) Isolation and characterization of lipopeptide antibiotics produced by Bacillus subtilis. Lett Appl Microbiol 47(3):180–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Chet I, Ordentlich A, Shapira R, Oppenheim A (1991) Mechanisms of biocontrol of soil-borne plant pathogens by Rhizobacteria. In: Keister DL, Cregan PB (eds) The rhizosphere and plant growth. Beltsville symposia in agricultural research, vol 14. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  24. Chin-A-Woeng TFC, Bloomberg GV, Lugtenberg BJJ (2003) Phenazines and their role in Biocontrol by Pseudomonas bacteria. New Phytol 157:503–523Google Scholar
  25. Chowdhury SP, Hartmann A, Gao XW, Borriss R (2015) Biocontrol mechanisms by root-associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42-a review. Front Microbiol 6:780. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Couillerot O, Combaret CP, Mellado JC, Loccoz YM (2009) Pseudomonas fluorescens and closely-related fluorescent pseudomonads as biocontrol agents of soil-borne phytopathogens. Lett Appl Microbiol 48:505–512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. David BV, Chandrasehar G, Selvam PN (2018) Pseudomonas fluorescens: a Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium (PGPR) with potential role in biocontrol of pests of crops. In: Prasad R, Gill SS, Tuteja N (eds) Crop improvement through microbial biotechnology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 221–243Google Scholar
  28. Dessaux Y, Grandclément C, Faure D (2016) Unravelling the secrets of the rhizosphere engineering the rhizosphere. Trends Plant Sci 21(3):266–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Diallo S, Crépin A, Barbey C, Orange N, Burini JF, Latour X (2011) Mechanisms and recent advances in biological control mediated through the potato rhizosphere. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 75:351–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Domenech J, Reddy MS, Kloepper JW (2006) Combined Application of the Biological Product LS213 with Bacillus, Pseudomonas or Chryseobacterium for Growth Promotion and Biological Control of Soil-Borne Diseases in Pepper and Tomato. BioControl 51:245Google Scholar
  31. Dowling DN, Gara OF (1994) Metabolites of Pseudomonas involved in the biocontrol of plant disease. Trends Biotechnol 12:133–141Google Scholar
  32. Duffy BK, Défago G (1997) Zinc improves biocontrol of Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato by Pseudomonas fluorescens and represses the production of pathogen metabolites inhibitory to bacterial antibiotic biosynthesis. Phytopathology 87:1250–1257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Dwivedi D, Johri BN (2003) Antifungals from fluorescent pseudomonads: biosynthesis and regulation. Curr Sci 12:1693–1703Google Scholar
  34. Emmert EAB, Handelsman J (1999) Biocontrol of plant disease: a (Gram-) positive perspective. FEMS Microbiol Lett 171:1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Errakhi R, Bouteau F, Lebrihi A (2007) Evidences of biological control capacities of Streptomyces spp. against Sclerotium rolfsii responsible for damping-off disease in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). World J Microbiol Biotechnol 23:1503Google Scholar
  36. Fernando WGD, Nakkeeran S, Zhang Y (2005) Biosynthesis of antibiotics by PGPR and its relation in biocontrol of plant diseases. In: Siddiqui ZA (ed) PGPR: biocontrol and biofertilization. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 67–109Google Scholar
  37. Fravel DR (1988) Role of Antibiosis in the Biocontrol of Plant Diseases. Annu Rev Phytopathol 26:75–91Google Scholar
  38. Gao X, He Q, Jiang Y (2015) Optimization of nutrient and fermentation parameters for antifungal activity by Streptomyces lavendulae and its biocontrol efficacies against Fulvia fulva and Botryosphaeria dothidea. J Phytopathol 164(3):155–165Google Scholar
  39. Glick BR, Bashan Y (1997) Genetic manipulation of plant growth-promoting bacteria to enhance biocontrol of phytopathogens. Biotechnol Adv 15(2):353–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gouda S, Kerryb RG, Dasc G, Paramithiotisd S, Shine HS, Patrac JK (2018) Revitalization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for sustainable development in agriculture. Microbiol Res 206:131–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gu Q, Yang Y, Yuan Q, Shi G, Wu L, Lou Z, Huo R, Wu H, Borriss R, Gao X (2017) Bacillomycin D produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is involved in the antagonistic interaction with the plant-pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum. Appl Environ Microbiol 83:e01075–e01017PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Haggag WM, Soud MAE (2012) Production and optimization of Pseudomonas fluorescens biomass and metabolites for biocontrol of strawberry grey mould. Am J Plant Sci 3:836–845Google Scholar
  43. Hassan MN, Afghan S, Hafeez FY (2011) Biological control of red rot in sugarcane by native pyoluteorin-producing Pseudomonas putida strain NH-50 under field conditions and its potential modes of action. Pest Manag Sci 67:1147–1154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hibbing ME, Fuqua C, Parsek MR, Peterson SB (2010) Bacterial competition: surviving and thriving in the microbial jungle. Nat Rev Microbiol 8(1):15–25. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Hill SB (2019) Pest control-cultural control of insects cultural methods of pest, primarily insect, control; EAP Publication – 58; Accessed 08 Jan 2019
  46. Islam S, Akanda AM, Prova A, Islam MT, Md H (2016) Isolation and identification of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from cucumber rhizosphere and their effect on plant growth promotion and disease suppression. Front Microbiol 6(1360):1–12Google Scholar
  47. Jacob S, Sajjalaguddam RR, Kumar KVK (2016) Assessing the prospects of Streptomyces sp. RP1A-12 in managing groundnut stem rot disease caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. J Gen Plant Pathol 82:96–104Google Scholar
  48. Jain R, Pandey A (2016) A phenazine-1-carboxylic acid producing polyextremophilic Pseudomonas chlororaphis (MCC2693) strain, isolated from mountain ecosystem, possesses biocontrol and plant growth promotion abilities. Microbiol Res 190:63–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Jayaprakashvel M (2008) Development of a synergistically performing bacterial consortium for sheath blight suppression in rice. Ph.D. thesis, University of Madras, Madras, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  50. Jayaprakashvel M, Mathivanan N (2011) Management of plant diseases by microbial metabolites. In: Maheshwari DK (ed) Bacteria in agrobiology: plant nutrient management. Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jayaprakashvel M, Selvakumar M, Srinivasan K, Ramesh S, Mathivanan N (2010a) Control of sheath blight disease in rice by thermostable secondary metabolites of Trichothecium roseum MML003. Eur J Plant Pathol 126:229–239Google Scholar
  52. Jayaprakashvel M, Muthezhilan R, Srinivasan R, Hussain AJ, Gopalakrishnan S, Bhagat J, Kaarthikeyan N, Muthulakshmi (2010b) Hydrogen cyanide mediated biocontrol potential of Pseudomonas sp. AMET1055 isolated from the rhizosphere of coastal sand dune vegetation. Adv Biotechnol 9(10):39–42Google Scholar
  53. Jayaprakashvel M, Sharmika N, Vinothini S, Venkatramani M, Muthezhilan R, Hussain AJ (2014) Biological control of sheath blight of rice using marine associated fluorescent pseudomonads. Biosci Biotechnol Res Asia 11:115–121Google Scholar
  54. Katan J (2010) Cultural approaches for disease management: present status and future prospects. J Plant Pathol 92(4):S4.7–S4.9Google Scholar
  55. Kavitha S, Senthilkumar S, Gnanamanickam SS, Inayathullah M, Jayakumar J (2005) Isolation and partial characterization of antifungal protein from Bacillus polymyxa strain VLB16. Process Biochem 40:3236–3243Google Scholar
  56. Khabbaz S, Zhang L, Cáceres L, Sumarah M, Wang A, Abbasi P (2015) Characterisation of antagonistic Bacillus and Pseudomonas strains for biocontrol potential and suppression of damping-off and root rot diseases. Ann Appl Biol 166:456–471Google Scholar
  57. Kloepper JW, Schroth MN (1978) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on radishes. In: Proceedings of the fourth international conference on plant pathogen bacteria, vol 2. INRA, Gilbert-Clarey, Tours, pp 879–882Google Scholar
  58. Kunova A, Bonaldi M, Saracchi M (2016) Selection of Streptomyces against soil borne fungal pathogens by a standardized dual culture assay and evaluation of their effects on seed germination and plant growth. BMC Microbiol 16:272PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Kwak YS, Bakker PAHM, Glandorf DCM (2009) Diversity, virulence and 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol sensitivity of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici isolates from Washington State. Phytopathology 99:472–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Landa BB, Montes-Borrego M, Navas-Cortés JA (2013) Use of PGPR for controlling soilborne fungal pathogens: assessing the factors influencing its efficacy. In: Maheshwari DK (ed) Bacteria in agrobiology: disease management. Springer, Berlin/HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  61. Lugtenberg B, Kamilova F (2009) Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol 63:541–556PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Mathivanan N, Prabhavathy VR, Vijayanandraj VR (2005) Application of talc formulations of Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula and Trichoderma viride Pers. ex S.F. Gray decrease the sheath blight disease and enhance the plant growth and yield in rice. J Phytopathol 153:697–701Google Scholar
  63. Mathivanan N, Manibhushanrao K, Murugesan K (2006) Biological control of plant pathogens. In: Anand N (ed) Recent trends in botanical research. University of Madras, Chennai, pp 275–323Google Scholar
  64. Mathivanan N, Prabavathy VR, Vijayanandraj VR (2008) The effect of fungal secondary metabolites on bacterial and fungal pathogens. In: Karlovsky P (ed) Secondary metabolites in soil ecology, Soil biology, vol 14. Springer, Berlin/HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  65. Maurhofer M, Keel C, Haas D, Défago G (1995) Influence of plant species on disease suppression by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 with enhanced antibiotic production. Plant Pathol 44:40–50Google Scholar
  66. Meyer SLF, Everts KL, Gardener BM, Masler EP, Abdelnabby HME, Skantar AM (2016) Assessment of DAPG-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens for Management of Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum on Watermelon. J Nematol 48(1):43–53PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Mishra J, Arora NK (2018) Secondary metabolites of fluorescent pseudomonads in biocontrol of phytopathogens for sustainable agriculture. Appl Soil Ecol 125:35–45Google Scholar
  68. Mishra S, Singh A, Keswani C, Saxena A, Sarma BK, Singh HB (2015) Harnessing plant-microbe interactions for enhanced protection against phytopathogens. In: Arora NK (ed) Plant microbe symbiosis–applied facets. Springer, New Delhi, pp 111–125Google Scholar
  69. Naseri B, Hemmati R (2017) Bean root rot management: recommendations based on an integrated approach for plant disease control. Rhizosphere 4:48–53Google Scholar
  70. Nielsen TH, Christopheresen C, Anthoni U, Sørensen J (1999) Viscosinamide, a new cyclic depsipeptide with surfactant and antifungal properties produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54. J Appl Microbiol 87:80–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Nielsen TH, Thrane C, Christophersen C, Anthoni U, Sørensen J (2000) Structure, production characteristics and fungal antagonism of tensin - a new antifungal cyclic lipopeptide from Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 96.578. J Appl Microbiol 89:992–1001PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Ongena M, Jacques P (2008) Bacillus lipopeptides: versatile weapons for plant disease biocontrol. Trends Microbiol 16:115–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Ozyilmaz U, Benlioglu K (2013) Enhanced biological control of phytophthora blight of pepper by biosurfactant-producing pseudomonas. Plant Pathol J 29(4):418–426PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Palazzini JM, Dunlap CA, Bowman MJ and Chulze SN (2016) Bacillus velezensis RC 218 as a biocontrol agent to reduce Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol accumulation: genome sequencing and secondary metabolite cluster profiles. Microbiol Res 192:30–36. Epub 2016 Jun 8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Pankhurst CE, Lynch JM (2005) Biocontrol of soil-borne plant diseases. In: Hillel D (ed) Encyclopedia of soils in the environment. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  76. Pengnoo A, Kusonwiriyawong C, Nilratana L, Kanjanamaneesathian M (2000) Greenhouse and field trials of the bacterial antagonists in pellet formulations to suppress sheath blight of rice caused by Rhizoctonia solani. BioControl 45:245–256Google Scholar
  77. Prabavathy VR, Mathivanan N, Murugesan K (2006) Control of blast and sheath blight diseases of rice using antifungal metabolites produced by Streptomyces sp. PM5. Biol Control 39:313–319Google Scholar
  78. Prabavathy VR, Vajayanandraj VR, Malarvizhi K, Mathivanan N, Mohan N, Murugesan K (2008) Role of actinomycetes and their metabolites in crop protection. In: Khachatourian GC, Arora DK, Rajendran TP, Srivastava AK (eds) Agriculturally important microorganisms. Academic World International, Bhopal, pp 243–255Google Scholar
  79. Prashanth S (2007) Biological control of Macrophomina root rot and plant growth promotion in groundnut by Bacillus licheniformis MML2501, an azole compound producing rhizobacterium. Ph.D. thesis, University of Madras, Madras, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  80. Prashanth S, Mathivanan N (2009) Growth promotion of groundnut by IAA producing rhizobacteria Bacillus licheniformis MML2501. Arch Phytopathol Plant Protect 43(2):191–208Google Scholar
  81. Prathap M, Ranjitha KBD (2015) A Critical review on plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. J Plant Pathol Microbiol 6(4):1–4Google Scholar
  82. Paulitz T, Nowak-Thompson B, Gamard P, Tsang E, Loper J (2000) A novel antifungal furanone from Pseudomonas aureofaciens, a biocontrol agent of fungal plant pathogens. J Chem Ecol 26:1515–1524Google Scholar
  83. Raaijmakers JM, Timothy CP, Steinberg C, Alabouvette C, Loccoz YM (2009) The rhizosphere: a playground and battlefield for soilborne pathogens and beneficial microorganisms. Plant Soil 321:341–361Google Scholar
  84. Ramadan EM, Abdelhafez AA, Enas AH, Saber FMA (2016) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and their potential for biocontrol of phytopathogens. Afr J Microbiol Res 10(15):486–504Google Scholar
  85. Robert FZH, Dmitri VB, David MM, Linda SW, Thomashow FEMS (2004) Transformation of Pseudomonas fluorescens with genes for biosynthesis of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid improves biocontrol of rhizoctonia root rot and in situ antibiotic production. Microbiol Ecol 49:243–251Google Scholar
  86. Roeland L, Berendsen Corne MJP, Peter AHMB (2012) The rhizosphere microbiome and plant health. Trends Plant Sci 17(8):478–486Google Scholar
  87. Romero D, de Vicente A, Rakotoaly RV, Dufour SE, Veening JW, Arrebola E, Cazorla FM, Kuipers OP (2007) The iturin and fengycin families of lipopeptides are key factors in antagonism of Bacillus subtilis towards Podosphaera fusca. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 20:430–440Google Scholar
  88. Saraf M, Pandya U, Thakkar A (2014) Role of allelochemicals in plant growth promoting rhizobacteria forbio control of phytopathogens. Microbiol Res 169:18–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Sarma MVRK, Saharan K, Kumar L, Gautam A, Kapoor A, Srivastava N, Sahai V, Bisaria VS (2010) Process optimization for enhanced production of cell biomass and metabolites of fluorescent pseudomonad. Int J Biomed Biol Eng 4:388–392Google Scholar
  90. Sasirekha B, Srividya S (2016) Siderophore production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa FP6, a biocontrol strain for Rhizoctonia solani and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing diseases in chilli. Agric Nat Resour 50:250–256Google Scholar
  91. Sayyed RZ, Chincholkar SB, Reddy MS, Gangurde NS, Patel PR (2013) Siderophore producing PGPR for crop nutrition and phytopathogen suppression. In: Maheshwari D (ed) Bacteria in agrobiology: disease management. Springer, Berlin/HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  92. Schouten A, Berg GVD, Hermann EV, Steinberg C, Gautheron N, Alabouvette C, Vos CHD, Lemanceau P, Raaijmakers JM (2004) Defense responses of Fusarium oxysporum to 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 17(11):1201–1211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Schreiter S, Babin D, Smalla K, Grosch R (2018) Rhizosphere competence and biocontrol effect of Pseudomonas sp. RU47 independent from plant species and soil type at the field scale. Front Microbiol 9:97PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Sekar J, Raj R, Prabavathy VR (2016) Microbial consortial products for sustainable agriculture: commercialization and regulatory issues in India. In: Singh H, Sarma B, Keswani C (eds) Agriculturally important microorganisms. Springer, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  95. Shafi J, Tian H, Ji M (2017) Bacillus species as versatile weapons for plant pathogens: a review. Biotechnol Biotec Eq 31(3):446–459Google Scholar
  96. Shang H, Chen J, Handelsman J, Goodman RM (1999) Behavior of Pythium torulosum zoospores during their interaction with tobacco roots and Bacillus cereus. Curr Microbiol 38:199–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Shanmugaiah V, Ramesh S, Jayaprakashvel M, Mathivanan N (2006) Biocontrol and plant growth promoting potential of a Pseudomonas sp. MML2212 from the rice rhizosphere. In: Zeller W, Ullrich C (eds) Proceedings for the first international symposium on biological control of bacterial plant diseases. Federal Institute of Biological Control & Darmstadt University of Technology, Dormstadt, pp 320–324Google Scholar
  98. Shanmugaiah V, Mathivanan N and Varghese B (2010) Purification, crystal structure and antimicrobial activity of phenazine-1-carboxamide produced by a growth-promoting biocontrol bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MML2212. Appl Microbiol 108(2):703–711. Epub 2009 Jul 7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Singh JS (2013) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria potential microbes for sustainable agriculture. Resonance 3:275–281Google Scholar
  100. Singh HB, Sarma BK, Keswani C (eds) (2016a) Agriculturally important microorganisms: commercialization and regulatory requirements in Asia. Springer, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  101. Singh V, Haque S, Niwas R, Srivastava A, Pasupuleti M, Tripathi CKM (2016b) Strategies for fermentation medium optimization: an in-depth review. Front Microbiol 7:2087. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Singh HB, Sarma BK, Keswani C (eds) (2017) Advances in PGPR. CABI, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  103. Someya N, Nakajima M, Watanabe K, Hibi T, Akutsu K (2010) Potential of Serratia marcescens strain B2 for biological control of rice sheath blight. Biocontrol Sci Tech 15(1):105–109Google Scholar
  104. Song Q, Huang Y, Yang H (2012) Optimization of fermentation conditions for antibiotic production by actinomycetes YJ1 strain against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. J Agric Sci 4:95Google Scholar
  105. Stabb EV, Jacobson LM, Handelsman J (1994) Zwittermicin A - producing strains of Bacillus cereus from diverse soils. Appl Environ Microbiol 60(12):4404–4412PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. Suzni T (1992) Biological control of soil borne diseases with antagonistic microbes. In: Kim SU (ed) New biopesticides: proceedings of the agricultural biotechnology symposium. The Research Center of New Bio-Materials in Agriculture, Suweon, pp 55–76Google Scholar
  107. Swain RC, Ray RC, Nautiyal CS (2008) Biocontrol efficacy of Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from cow dung against postharvest yam (Dioscorea rotundata L.) pathogens. Curr Microbiol 57:407–411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Tabassum B, Khan A, Tariq M, Ramzan M, Khan MSI, Shahid N, Aaliya K (2017) Bottlenecks in commercialisation and future prospects of PGPR. Appl Soil Ecol 121:102–117Google Scholar
  109. Tanaka Y, Omura S (1993) Agroactive compounds of microbial origin. Annu Rev Microbiol 47:57–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Thampi RA, Bhai S (2017) Rhizosphere actinobacteria for combating Phytophthora capsici and Sclerotium rolfsii, the major soil borne pathogens of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.). Biol Control 109:1–13Google Scholar
  111. Thomashow LS (1996) Biological control of plant root pathogens. Curr Opin Biotechnol 7:343–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Thrane C, Nielsen TH, Nielsen MN, Sørensen J, Olsson S (2000) Viscosinamide-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54 exerts a biocontrol effect on Pythium ultimum in sugar beet rhizosphere. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 33(2):139–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Tran H, Ficke A, Asiimwe T, Hofte M, Raaijmakers JM (2007) Role of the cyclic lipopeptide massetolide A in biological control of Phytophthora infestans and in colonization of tomato plants by Pseudomonas fluorescens. New Phytol 175:731–742PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Upadhyay A, Srivastava S (2011) Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid is a more important contributor to biocontrol Fusarium oxysporum than pyrrolnitrin in Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Psd. Microbiol Res 166(4):323–335. Epub 2010 Sept 1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Vasudevan P, Kavitha S, Priyadarisini VB, Babujee L, Gnanamanickam SS (2002) Biological control of rice diseases. In: Gnanamanickam SS (ed) Biological control of crop diseases. Dekker, New York, pp 11–32Google Scholar
  116. Vijayan N, Sagadevan E, Arumugam P, Hussain AJ, Jayaprakashvel M (2012) Screening of Marine bacteria for multiple Biotechnological applications. J Acad Ind Res 1(6):348–354Google Scholar
  117. Vinay JU, Naik MK, Rangeshwaran R (2016) Detection of antimicrobial traits in fluorescent pseudomonads and molecular characterization of an antibiotic pyoluteorin. Biotech 6:227Google Scholar
  118. Vleesschauwer DD, Hofte M (2007) Using Serratia plymuthica to control fungal pathogens of plants. CAB Rev Perspect Agric Vet Sci Nutr Nat Res 2:046. Google Scholar
  119. Watt M, Kirkegaard JA, Passioura JB (2006) Rhizosphere biology and crop productivity—a review. Aust J Soil Res 44:299–317Google Scholar
  120. Weller MD (2007) Pseudomonas biocontrol agents of soilborne pathogens: looking back over 30 years. Phytopathology 97:250–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Yamaguchi I (1996) Pesticides of microbial origin and applications of molecular biology. In: Copping LG (ed) Crop protection agents from nature: natural products and analogues. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, pp 27–49Google Scholar
  122. Yang MM, Wen SS, Mavrodi DV, Mavrodi OV, Wettstein DV, Thomashow LS, Guo JH, Weller DM (2014) Biological Control of Wheat Root Diseases by the CLP-Producing Strain Pseudomonas fluorescens HC1-07. Phytopathology 104(3):248–256PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. Zeng W, Wang D, Kirk W, Hao J (2012) Use of Coniothyrium minitans and other microorganisms for reducing Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Biol Control 60:225–232Google Scholar
  124. Zhang LH, Dong YH (2004) Quorum sensing and signal interference: diverse implications. Mol Microbiol 53:1563–1571PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Jayaprakashvel
    • 1
    • 2
  • C. Chitra
    • 1
  • N. Mathivanan
    • 1
  1. 1.Biocontrol and Microbial Metabolites Lab, Centre for Advanced Studies in BotanyUniversity of MadrasChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Marine BiotechnologyAcademy of Maritime Education and Training (AMET)ChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations