Reversible Watermarking Based on Adaptive Prediction Error Expansion

  • Qi Li
  • Bin YanEmail author
  • Hui Li
  • Jeng-Shyang Pan
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 834)


In traditional prediction error expansion (PEE) based reversible watermarking (RW), the watermark bits are embedded into the two peaks of the global prediction error histogram. This scheme ignores some bins in local histogram. To improve the utilization of prediction error, a method based on locally adaptive PEE is proposed. The original image is divided into two regions. In the first region, the image is divided into several blocks and the local prediction error histogram of each block is obtained after checkerboard prediction. Then, the two peaks in the local histogram of each block are used for watermark embedding. In the second region, the least significant bit (LSB) replacement is used to embed the auxiliary information and compressed positioning map. It is verified that, under the same image distortion, this method provides higher embedding capacity.


Reversible watermarking PEE Checkerboard prediction Global histogram Local histogram 



This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (No. 61272432) and Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation (No. ZR2014JL044).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Electronics Communication and Physics, Shandong University of Science and TechnologyQingdaoPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.College of Computer Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and TechnologyQingdaoPeople’s Republic of China

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