• Hiroshi Shimizu
Part of the Advances in Japanese Business and Economics book series (AJBE, volume 21)


This study uses various kinds of data to perform longitudinal analysis. Since these data shed light on an aspect of entangled complex social phenomena respectively, it is important to critically review each data source: how the data are collected, embedded biases in the data, data collection methods, and how the data are used in this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hiroshi Shimizu
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of CommerceWaseda UniversityTokyoJapan

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