Ionospheric Modeling and Precision Positioning Global Navigation Satellite System

  • Nurul Fazira Abd Rahman
  • Sabira KhatunEmail author
  • Kamarul Hawari Ghazali
  • Md. Moslemuddin Fakir
  • Mamunur Rashid
  • Bifta Sama Bari
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 538)


In ionosphere, the total electron content (TEC) contributes a significant role in determining the scintillation. Ionospheric scintillation can affect severely in satellite-based navigation and communication systems. Thus, the study of TEC of ionosphere is very crucial. The correlation between TEC and temperature in different weather and time has been presented in this paper. The TEC data was taken from the global positioning system (GPS) receiver at University Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia (120′ 24.7388′E and 36′ 14.5310′N). These data were analyzed by the SPSS software using multiple regression and leveling process methods, then a model for TEC estimation has been proposed. The results show that during sunny weather, the TEC is highly correlated with temperature compared to the rainy weather. TEC is also correlated with time, the maximum correlation is found ~94% with corresponding TEC value ~35.24. The highest TEC can be obtained from 12 pm to 4 pm, which is around 35 in average. Besides, multiple regression method enhanced TEC estimation accuracy ~8.77% than leveling process method.


Total electron content (TEC) Ionospheric scintillation GNSS 



The authors would also like to thank the Faculty of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang for providing the facilities to complete this work. This work is supported by Internal Grant (with grant number RDU1703125) of University Malaysia Pahang (


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nurul Fazira Abd Rahman
    • 1
  • Sabira Khatun
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kamarul Hawari Ghazali
    • 1
  • Md. Moslemuddin Fakir
    • 2
  • Mamunur Rashid
    • 1
  • Bifta Sama Bari
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Electrical and Electronics EngineeringUniversiti Malaysia PahangPekan, PahangMalaysia
  2. 2.CARiFF, Faculty of Chemical & Natural Resources EngineeringUniversiti Malaysia PahangGambang, PahangMalaysia

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