• Ravi K. Grandhi
  • Alaa Abd-Elsayed


The nervous system is made up of two parts: the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The two systems are in close communication with each other. Pathology in one area leads to dysfunction in other end organs, if it is not corrected. Anatomical abnormalities often lead to significant pathology. This chapter reviews the significant anatomy in the CNS and PNS.


Central nervous system Peripheral nervous system Anatomy Spinal cord Brain 


  1. 1.
    Rakic P. Evolution of the neocortex: a perspective from developmental biology. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2009;10(10):724–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pessoa L. Emotion and cognition and the amygdala: from “what is it?” to “what’s to be done?”. Neuropsychologia. 2010;48(12):3416–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Spreng RN, Mar RA. I remember you: a role for memory in social cognition and the functional neuroanatomy of their interaction. Brain Res. 2012;1428:43–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Curlik DM 2nd, Shors TJ. Training your brain: do mental and physical (MAP) training enhance cognition through the process of neurogenesis in the hippocampus? Neuropharmacology. 2013;64:506–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fix J. Board review series: neuroanatomy. 4th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stocco A, Lebiere C, Anderson JR. Conditional routing of information to the cortex: a model of the basal ganglia’s role in cognitive coordination. Psychol Rev. 2010;117(2):541–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fix J. High-yield neuroanatomy. 4th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fine EJ, Ionita CC, Lohr L. The history of the development of the cerebellar examination. Semin Neurol. 2002;22(4):375–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Budohoski KP, Czosnyka M, Kirkpatrick PJ, Smielewski P, Steiner LA, Pickard JD. Clinical relevance of cerebral autoregulation following subarachnoid haemorrhage. Nat Rev Neurol. 2013;9(3):152–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bahr M, Frotscher M. Duus’ topical diagnosis in neurology: anatomy - physiology - signs - symptoms. 5th ed. New York: Teachers, Parents, Students; 2012.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Guyenet PG, Koshiya N, Huangfu D, Baraban SC, Stornetta RL, Li Y-W. Role of medulla oblongata in generation of sympathetic and vagal outflows. Prog Brain Res. 1996;107:127–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hughes T. Neurology of swallowing and oral feeding disorders: assessment and management. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74(90003):48iii–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Steriade M. Arousal--revisiting the reticular activating system. Science. 1996;272(5259):225–0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Evans BM. Sleep, consciousness and the spontaneous and evoked electrical activity of the brain. Is there a cortical integrating mechanism? Neurophysiol Clin. 2003;33(1):1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Guo X, Tang XC. Roles of periaqueductal gray and nucleus raphe magnus on analgesia induced by lappaconitine, N-deacetyllappaconitine and morphine. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1990;11(2):107–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Echelard Y, Epstein DJ, St-Jacques B, Shen L, Mohler J, McMahon JA, et al. Sonic hedgehog, a member of a family of putative signaling molecules, is implicated in the regulation of CNS polarity. Cell. 1993;75(7):1417–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Than-Trong E, Bally-Cuif L. Radial glia and neural progenitors in the adult zebrafish central nervous system. Glia. 2015;63(8):1406–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Melissano G, Bertoglio L, Rinaldi E, Leopardi M, Chiesa R. An anatomical review of spinal cord blood supply. J Cardiovasc Surg. 2015;56(5):699–706.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mai J, Paxinos G. The human nervous system. 3rd ed. Waltham: Academic; 2011.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Anatomy SK. Physiology: the unity of form and function. New York: McGraw Hill; 2007.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Laight D. Overview of peripheral nervous system pharmacology. Nurse Prescr. 2013;11(9):448–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Matic A. Introduction to the nervous system - part 2: autonomic nervous system and central nervous system. AMWA J. 2014;29(2):51–5.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ravi K. Grandhi
    • 1
  • Alaa Abd-Elsayed
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyMaimonides Medical CenterBrooklynUSA
  2. 2.Department of Anesthesiology, UW Health Pain ServicesUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations