Novel Method and Molten Salt Electrolytic Cell for Implementing a Hydrogen Fuel, Sustainable, Closed Clean Energy Cycle on a Large Scale

  • Alvin G. SternEmail author
Part of the Energy, Environment, and Sustainability book series (ENENSU)


We describe an economical, novel method for implementing a hydrogen fuel clean energy cycle based on the chemical reaction between salinated (sea) or desalinated (fresh) water (H2O) and sodium (Na) metal that produces hydrogen (H2) fuel and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) byproduct. The sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is reprocessed in a solar powered electrolytic Na metal production plant that can result in excess production of chlorine (Cl2) from sodium chloride (NaCl) in sea salt mixed with NaOH, used to effect freezing point lowering of seawater reactant for hydrogen generation at reduced temperatures. The novel method and molten salt electrolytic cell enable natural separation of NaCl from NaOH, thereby limiting excess Cl2 production. The recovered NaCl can be used to produce concentrated brine solution from seawater for hydrogen generation in cold climates, or can be converted to sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) via the Solvay process for electrolytic production of Na metal without Cl2 generation.


Novel hydrogen clean energy cycle Novel electrolytic cell Novel electrolysis method Sodium metal production Molten salt electrolysis Solar powered electrolysis Safe hydrogen generation 



Isobaric heat capacity (J/K·mol)

\( E_{\text{r}} {^\circ } ,E_{\text{o}} {^\circ } \)

Standard reduction, oxidation half reaction potential (V)

\( E_{\text{ov}} {^\circ } \)

Standard overall reaction potential (V)


Electrochemical cell potential (V)


Change in Gibbs free energy (kJ)

\( \varDelta G_{\text{f}} {^\circ } \)

Standard Gibbs free energy of formation (kJ/mol)


Change in enthalpy (kJ)

\( \varDelta H_{\text{f}} {^\circ } \)

Standard enthalpy of formation (kJ/mol)


Enthalpy of fusion (J/mol)


Enthalpy of transition (J/mol)


Enthalpy of vaporization (J/mol)


Electrolytic cell current (A)


Number of moles of electrons transferred (mol)


Absolute pressure (Pa)


Electrolytic cell resistance (Ω)


Change in entropy (J/K)


Standard entropy (J/K·mol)


Entropy of fusion (J/K·mol)


Entropy of transition (J/K·mol)


Entropy of vaporization (J/K·mol)


Absolute temperature, ITS-90 or Celsius temperature (K) or (°C)


Fusion temperature (K)


Vaporization temperature (K)


Voltage applied to electrolytic cell (V)


Difference in voltage applied to electrolytic cell (V)


Electrical work (kJ)


Faraday constant [96485.3365 (C/mol)]


Gravitational acceleration near earth’s surface [9.80665 (m/s2)]


Standard atmospheric pressure [101325 (Pa)]


Celsius zero point, ITS-90 [273.15 (K)]


Eutectic temperature of NaCl–H2O solution [−21.2 (°C)]


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.AG STERN, LLCNewtonUSA

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