Role/s of ‘Antioxidant’ Enzymes in Ageing
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated externally and during aerobic metabolism, are a potent cause of cell damage. Oxidative damage is a feature of many diseases and ageing, including age-associated diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Indeed, this association helped lead to the widely expounded ‘Free Radical Theory of Aging’, proposing that the accumulation of ROS-induced damage is the underlying cause of ageing. In the last decade, it has become apparent that ROS play more complex roles in ageing than simply causing damage. This includes the induction of signalling pathways that protect against/repair cell damage. Cells encode a variety of enzymes that metabolise ROS, some of which reduce them to less reactive species. In this chapter, we review the evidence that manipulating the levels of these enzymes has any effect/s on ageing. We will also highlight a few examples illustrating why it is an over-simplification to describe the activities of some of these enzymes as ‘antioxidants’. We discuss how these studies have helped refine our view of how ROS and ROS-metabolising enzymes contribute to the ageing process.
KeywordsPeroxiredoxins Superoxide dismutase Catalase Signal transduction Hydrogen peroxide Yeast Flies Worms Mice Antioxidants
We are grateful to many colleagues in the aging and redox fields for helpful discussions that have informed this chapter. We thank the many contributors to this field, whose work and insight has informed this review and apologise to any whose work we may have inadvertently overlooked.
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