Assessing IEQ Performance in Buildings

  • Pranab Kumar Nag
Part of the Design Science and Innovation book series (DSI)


Building characteristics, indoor physical layout, and environmental quality have plausible links on occupants’ health, comfort, satisfaction, and productivity. Assessing IEQ performance in office buildings involves objective and experimental measurements and subjective methods. The chapter summarizes post-occupancy survey instruments (such as BOSTI, MM040 Questionnaire, Building Use Studies—US EPA BASE, EU project HOPE) in evaluating building energy consumption, maintenance systems, and occupant comfort after the built facility has been occupied. The prEN 16798-1 (2015), ISO 7730 and US ASHRAE 55 (2010) /2013 are the guidance documents on IEQ imperatives related to the design and assessment of energy performance of buildings. The recommended four categories defined in prEN 16798-1 (2015) to express levels of occupants’ expectation are uniquely structured, elaborating its utility in design, analysis, and operation of energy-efficient and comfortable buildings. This chapter describes the emergence of IEQ index and mathematical derivation of sub-indices for thermal comfort, acoustic comfort, lighting comfort and IAQ, to arrive at an evaluative picture of IEQ in a cluster of office and non-residential building. Further, assessment of IEQ encompasses evaluating health effects (such as SBS, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asthma) and occupant’s performance and productivity.


  1. Akimoto, T., Tanabe, S. I., Yanai, T., & Sasaki, M. (2010). Thermal comfort and productivity-evaluation of workplace environment in a task conditioned office. Building and Environment, 45(1), 45–50.Google Scholar
  2. Alrubaih, M. S., Zain, M. F. M., Alghoul, M. A., Ibrahim, N. L. N., Shameri, M. A., & Elayeb, O. (2013). Research and development on aspects of daylighting fundamentals. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 21, 494–505.Google Scholar
  3. Andersson, K., Stridh, G., Fagerlund, I., & Larsson. B. (1993). The MM-questionnaires: A tool when solving indoor climate problems (pp. 1–18). Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.Google Scholar
  4. ANSI/ASHRAE 55. (2004, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2013 versions). Thermal environmental conditions for human occupancy, ASHRAE, Atlanta, GA.Google Scholar
  5. ANSI/IES/ASHRAE. (2007/2010/2013/2016). 90.1-2016 (I-P)—Energy standard for buildings except low-rise residential buildings, Atlanta.
  6. Arens, E., Humphreys, M. A., De Dear, R., & Zhang, H. (2010). Are “class A” temperature requirements realistic or desirable? Building and Environment, 45, 4–10.Google Scholar
  7. ASHRAE. (2005). Handbook of fundamentals, American society of heating, refrigerating and air conditioning engineers. Atlanta, Georgia, USA.Google Scholar
  8. Ayr, U., Cirillo, E., Fato, I., & Martellotta, F. (2003). A new approach to assessing the performance of noise indices in buildings. Applied Acoustics, 64(2), 129–145.Google Scholar
  9. Balazova, I., Clausen, G., Rindel, J. H., Poulsen, T., & Wyon, D. P. (2008). Open-plan office environments: A laboratory experiment to examine the effect of office noise and temperature on human perception, comfort and office work performance. In Proceedings of INDOOR AIR.Google Scholar
  10. Banbury, S. P., & Berry, D. C. (2005). Office noise and employee concentration: Identifying causes of disruption and potential improvements. Ergonomics, 48(1), 25–37.Google Scholar
  11. Bluyssen, P. M., Aries, M., & van Dommelen, P. (2011). Comfort of workers in office buildings: The European HOPE project. Building and Environment, 46(1), 280–288.Google Scholar
  12. Brager, G. S., & De Dear, R. J. (1998). Thermal adaptation in the built environment: A literature review. Energy and Buildings, 27(1), 83–96.Google Scholar
  13. Bright, G. T. (2012). The economics of biophilia. Why designing with nature in mind makes financial sense. New York: Terrapin Bright Green.Google Scholar
  14. Brill, M. (1984). Using office design to increase productivity (Vol. I). Buffalo, NY, Workplace Design and Productivity. BOSTI Associates.Google Scholar
  15. Brill, M. (1985). Using office design to increase productivity (Vol. I–II). Buffalo, NY, Workplace Design and Productivity. BOSTI Associates.Google Scholar
  16. Candido, C., Kim, J., de Dear, R., & Thomas, L. (2016). BOSSA: A multidimensional post-occupancy evaluation tool. Building Research & Information, 44(2), 214–228.Google Scholar
  17. Cantin, F., & Dubois, M. C. (2011). Daylighting metrics based on illuminance, distribution, glare and directivity. Lighting Research & Technology, 43(3), 291–307.Google Scholar
  18. Cao, B., Ouyang, Q., Zhu, Y., Huang, L., Hu, H., & Deng, G. (2012). Development of a multivariate regression model for overall satisfaction in public buildings based on field studies in Beijing and Shanghai. Building and Environment, 47, 394–399.Google Scholar
  19. Carp, O., Huisman, C. L., & Reller, A. (2004). Photoinduced reactivity of titanium dioxide. Progress in Solid State Chemistry, 32(1), 33–177.Google Scholar
  20. CBE. (2008). Occupant indoor environmental quality (IEQ) survey.Google Scholar
  21. Chiang, C. M., Chou, P. C., Lai, C. M., & Li, Y. Y. (2001). A methodology to assess the indoor environment in care centers for senior citizens. Building and Environment, 36(4), 561-568.Google Scholar
  22. Cohen, R., Standeven, M., Bordass, B., & Leaman, A. (2001). Assessing building performance in use 1: The Probe process. Building Research & Information, 29(2), 85–102.Google Scholar
  23. De Dear, R. J., & Brager, G. S. (2002). Thermal comfort in naturally ventilated buildings: Revisions to ASHRAE standard 55. Energy and Buildings, 34(6), 549–561.Google Scholar
  24. Dimitroulopoulou, C., & Bartzis, J. (2014). Ventilation rates in European office buildings: A review. Indoor and Built Environment, 23(1), 5–25.Google Scholar
  25. DIN EN 12464-1. (August 2011). Lighting of work places–indoor work places.Google Scholar
  26. Djongyang, N., Tchinda, R., & Njomo, D. (2010). Thermal comfort: A review paper. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 14(9), 2626-2640.Google Scholar
  27. Dykes, C., & Baird, G. (2013). A review of questionnaire-based methods used for assessing and benchmarking indoor environmental quality. Intelligent Buildings International, 5(3), 135–149.Google Scholar
  28. Elzeyadi, I. M. (2011). Daylighting-bias and biophilia: Quantifying the impact of daylighting on occupants health, US Green Building Council.
  29. EN 12464-1. (2002/2011). Light and lighting—lighting of work places—part 1: Indoor work places. European Committee for Standardization, Bruxelles.Google Scholar
  30. EN 13779. (2006). Ventilation for non-residential buildings performance requirements for ventilation and room-conditioning systems. CEN.Google Scholar
  31. EN 15193-1. (2007). Energy performance of buildings—Wenergy requirements for lighting, Part 1: Lighting energy estimation. European Committee for Standardization.Google Scholar
  32. EN 15251. (2007). Indoor environmental input parameters for design and assessment of energy performance of buildings—addressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and acoustics. CEN, Brussels.Google Scholar
  33. Engvall, K., Norrby, C., & Sandstedt, E. (2004). The stockholm indoor environment questionnaire: A sociologically based tool for the assessment of indoor environment and health in dwellings. Indoor Air, 14(1), 24–33.Google Scholar
  34. EU, EPBD (2002). Directive 2002/91/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2002 on the energy performance of buildings.Google Scholar
  35. EU EPBD (2010). Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings (recast). Official Journal of the European Union; 18 June 2010.Google Scholar
  36. Everaert, K., & Baeyens, J. (2004). Catalytic combustion of volatile organic compounds. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 109(1), 113–139.Google Scholar
  37. Ezzeldin, S., & Rees, S. J. (2013). The potential for office buildings with mixed-mode ventilation and low energy cooling systems in arid climates. Energy and Buildings, 65, 368–381.Google Scholar
  38. Fanger, P. O. (1984). Moderate thermal environments determination of the PMV and PPD indices and specification of the conditions for thermal comfort. ISO 7730.Google Scholar
  39. Fanger, P. O. (1988). Introduction of the olf and the decipol units to quantify air pollution perceived by humans indoors and outdoors. Energy and Buildings, 12(1), 1–6.Google Scholar
  40. Fanger, P. O. (1973). Thermal comfort. McGraw-Hill Inc.Google Scholar
  41. Feige, A., Wallbaum, H., Janser, M., & Windlinger, L. (2013). Impact of sustainable office buildings on occupant’s comfort and productivity. Journal of Corporate Real Estate, 15(1), 7–34.Google Scholar
  42. Fisk, W. J. (2013). Health benefits of particle filtration. Indoor Air, 23(5), 357–368.Google Scholar
  43. Fisk, W. J., Black, D., & Brunner, G. (2012). Changing ventilation rates in US offices: Implications for health, work performance, energy, and associated economics. Building and Environment, 47, 368–372.Google Scholar
  44. Fisk, W. J., Faulkner, D., Palonen, J., & Seppanen, O. (2002). Performance and costs of particle air filtration technologies. Indoor Air, 12(4), 223–234.Google Scholar
  45. Frontczak, M., & Wargocki, P. (2011). Literature survey on how different factors influence human comfort in indoor environments. Building and Environment, 46(4), 922–937.Google Scholar
  46. Frontczak, M., Schiavon, S., Goins, J., Arens, E., Zhang, H., & Wargocki, P. (2012). Quantitative relationships between occupant satisfaction and satisfaction aspects of indoor environmental quality and building design. Indoor Air, 22(2), 119–131.Google Scholar
  47. Galasiu, A. D., & Veitch, J. A. (2006). Occupant preferences and satisfaction with the luminous environment and control systems in daylit offices: A literature review. Energy and Buildings, 38(7), 728–742.Google Scholar
  48. Göçer, Ö., Hua, Y., & Göçer, K. (2015). Completing the missing link in building design process: Enhancing post-occupancy evaluation method for effective feedback for building performance. Building and Environment, 89, 14–27.Google Scholar
  49. Gordon-Larsen, P., Boone-Heinonen, J., Sidney, S., Sternfeld, B., Jacobs, D. R., & Lewis, C. E. (2009). Active commuting and cardiovascular disease risk: The CARDIA study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 169(13), 1216–1223.Google Scholar
  50. Gou, Z., Prasad, D., & Lau, S. S. Y. (2014). Impacts of green certifications, ventilation and office types on occupant satisfaction with indoor environmental quality. Architectural Science Review, 57(3), 196–206.Google Scholar
  51. Haynes, B. P. (2009). Research design for the measurement of perceived office productivity. Intelligent Buildings International, 1(3), 169–183.Google Scholar
  52. Heerwagen, J. (2009). Biophilia, health, and well-being. J.H. Heerwagen & Associates.Google Scholar
  53. Heinzerling, D., Schiavon, S., Webster, T., & Arens, E. (2013). Indoor environmental quality assessment models: A literature review and a proposed weighting and classification scheme. Building and Environment, 70, 210–222.Google Scholar
  54. Hemphälä, H., & Eklund, J. (2012). A visual ergonomics intervention in mail sorting facilities: Effects on eyes, muscles and productivity. Applied Ergonomics, 43(1), 217–229.Google Scholar
  55. Humphreys, M. A. (2005). Quantifying occupant comfort: Are combined indices of the indoor environment practicable? Building Research & Information, 33(4), 317–325.Google Scholar
  56. Humphreys, M. A., Nicol, J. F., & Raja, I. A. (2007). Field studies of indoor thermal comfort and the progress of the adaptive approach. Advances in Building Energy Research, 1(1), 55–88.Google Scholar
  57. ISO 7730. (2005). Ergonomics of the thermal environment—analytical determination and interpretation of thermal comfort using calculation of the PMV and PPD indices and local thermal comfort criteria, 3rd version, Geneva.Google Scholar
  58. ISO EN 13790. (2008). Energy performance of buildings (Calculation of energy use for space heating and cooling). International Standards Organization, Geneva.Google Scholar
  59. Jahncke, H., & Halin, N. (2012). Performance, fatigue and stress in open-plan offices: The effects of noise and restoration on hearing impaired and normal hearing individuals. Noise and Health, 14(60), 260.Google Scholar
  60. Kamarulzaman, N., Saleh, A. A., Hashim, S. Z., Hashim, H., & Abdul-Ghani, A. A. (2011). An overview of the influence of physical office environments towards employee. In 2nd International Building Control Conference 2011 (pp. 262–268). Procedia Engineering, 20.Google Scholar
  61. Karjalainen, S. (2012). Thermal comfort and gender: A literature review. Indoor Air, 22(2), 96–109.Google Scholar
  62. Kim, J., & de Dear, R. (2012). Nonlinear relationships between individual IEQ factors and overall workspace satisfaction. Building and Environment, 49, 33–40.Google Scholar
  63. Lai, A. C. K., Mui, K. W., Wong, L. T., & Law, L. Y. (2009). An evaluation model for indoor environmental quality (IEQ) acceptance in residential buildings. Energy and Buildings, 41(9), 930–936.Google Scholar
  64. Lan, L., Wargocki, P., & Lian, Z. (2011). Quantitative measurement of productivity loss due to thermal discomfort. Energy and Buildings, 43(5), 1057–1062.Google Scholar
  65. Langevin, J., Wen, J., & Gurian, P. L. (2013). Modeling thermal comfort holistically: Bayesian estimation of thermal sensation, acceptability, and preference distributions for office building occupants. Building and Environment, 69, 206–226.Google Scholar
  66. Lim, Y. W., Kandar, M. Z., Ahmad, M. H., Ossen, D. R., & Abdullah, A. M. (2012). Building façade design for daylighting quality in typical government office building. Building and Environment, 57, 194–204.Google Scholar
  67. Marino, C., Nucara, A., & Pietrafesa, M. (2012). Proposal of comfort classification indexes suitable for both single environments and whole buildings. Building and Environment, 57, 58–67.Google Scholar
  68. McCartney, K. J., & Nicol, J. F. (2002). Developing an adaptive control algorithm for Europe. Energy and Buildings, 34(6), 623–635.Google Scholar
  69. McLaughlm, C. (2000). Sound solutions. ASID ICON June.Google Scholar
  70. Mui, K. W., & Chan, W. T. (2005). A new indoor environmental quality equation for air-conditioned buildings. Architectural Science Review, 48(1), 41–46.Google Scholar
  71. Mui, K. W., & Wong, L. T. (2006). A method of assessing the acceptability of noise levels in air-conditioned offices. Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, 27(3), 249–254.Google Scholar
  72. Ncube, M., & Riffat, S. (2012). Developing an indoor environment quality tool for assessment of mechanically ventilated office buildings in the UK–a preliminary study. Building and Environment, 53, 26–33.Google Scholar
  73. Nicol, F., Humphreys, M., & Roaf, S. (2012). Adaptive thermal comfort: Principles and practice. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  74. Nicol, J. F., & Wilson, M. (2011). A critique of European Standard EN 15251: Strengths, weaknesses and lessons for future standards. Building Research & Information, 39(2), 183–193.Google Scholar
  75. Offermann, F. J. (2009). Ventilation and indoor air quality in new homes, California Air Resources Board and California Energy Commission, PIER Energy-Related Environmental Research Program. Collaborative Report. Collaborative Report. CEC-500-2009, 85.Google Scholar
  76. Olesen, B. W. (2007). The philosophy behind EN 15251: Indoor environmental criteria for design and calculation of energy performance of buildings. Energy and Buildings, 39(7), 740–749.Google Scholar
  77. Oseland, N., & Bartlett, P. (1999). Improving office productivity: A guide for business and facilities managers. Harlow: Longman.Google Scholar
  78. Payne, S. R. (2013). The production of a perceived restorativeness soundscape scale. Applied Acoustics, 74(2), 255–263.Google Scholar
  79. Pellerin, N., & Candas, V. (2004). Effects of steady-state noise and temperature conditions on environmental perception and acceptability. Indoor Air, 14(2), 129–136.Google Scholar
  80. Pomponi, F., Farr, E. R., Piroozfar, P., & Gates, J. R. (2015). Façade refurbishment of existing office buildings: Do conventional energy-saving interventions always work? Journal of Building Engineering, 3, 135–143.Google Scholar
  81. Prasad, S. (2004). Clarifying intentions: The design quality indicator. Building Research & Information, 32(6), 548–551.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  82. prEN 16798-1. (2015). Energy performance of buildings—Part 1: Indoor environmental input parameters for design and assessment of energy performance of buildings addressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and acoustics—Module M1-6. CEN, Brussels.Google Scholar
  83. Quang, T. N., He, C., Knibbs, L. D., de Dear, R., & Morawska, L. (2014). Co-optimisation of indoor environmental quality and energy consumption within urban office buildings. Energy and Buildings, 85, 225–234.Google Scholar
  84. Raimondo, D., Corgnati, S. P., & Olesen, B. W. (2012). Evaluation methods for indoor environmental quality assessment. REHVA Journal, 14–9.Google Scholar
  85. Raw, G. J. (1995). The office environment survey. London: CRC Ltd.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  86. Roark, S. E., Cabrera-Fonseca, J., Milazzo, M. C., White, J. H., & Wander, J. D. (2004). Catalytic oxidation of volatile organic liquids. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 130(3), 329–337.Google Scholar
  87. Roelofsen, P. (2016). A computer model for the assessment of employee performance loss as a function of thermal discomfort or degree of heat stress. Intelligent Buildings International, 8(4), 195–214.Google Scholar
  88. Schiavon, S., & Melikov, A. K. (2008). Energy saving and improved comfort by increased air movement. Energy and Buildings, 40(10), 1954–1960.Google Scholar
  89. Seppänen, O. A., & Fisk, W. (2006). Some quantitative relations between indoor environmental quality and work performance or health. HVAC&R Research, 12(4), 957–973.Google Scholar
  90. Sivaji, A., Shopian, S., Nor, Z. M., Chuan, N. K., & Bahri, S. (2013). Lighting does matter: Preliminary assessment on office workers. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 97, 638–647.Google Scholar
  91. Tham, K. W., Wargocki, P., & Tan, Y. F. (2015). Indoor environmental quality, occupant perception, prevalence of sick building syndrome symptoms, and sick leave in a Green Mark Platinum-rated versus a non-Green Mark-rated building: A case study. Science and Technology for the Built Environment, 21(1), 35–44.Google Scholar
  92. Wang, S., Ang, H. M., & Tade, M. O. (2007). Volatile organic compounds in indoor environment and photocatalytic oxidation: State of the art. Environment International, 33(5), 694–705.Google Scholar
  93. Wolkoff, P. (2013). Indoor air pollutants in office environments: Assessment of comfort, health, and performance. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 216(4), 371–394.Google Scholar
  94. Wong, N. H., Tan, P. Y., & Chen, Y. (2007). Study of thermal performance of extensive rooftop greenery systems in the tropical climate. Building and Environment, 42, 25–54.Google Scholar
  95. Wong, L. T., Mui, K. W., & Hui, P. S. (2008). A multivariate-logistic model for acceptance of indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in offices. Building and Environment, 43(1), 1–6.Google Scholar
  96. World Green Building Council (WGBC). (2014). Health, wellbeing & productivity in offices. World Green Building Council.Google Scholar
  97. World Health Organization (WHO). (2010). WHO guidelines for indoor air quality: Selected pollutants. WHO Regional Office for Europe. ISBN 978-92-890-0213-4.Google Scholar
  98. Yang, I. H., & Nam, E. J. (2010). Economic analysis of the daylight-linked lighting control system in office buildings. Solar Energy, 84(8), 1513-1525.Google Scholar
  99. Zhang, Y., & Barrett, P. (2012a). Factors influencing the occupants’ window opening behaviour in a naturally ventilated office building. Building and Environment, 50, 125–134.Google Scholar
  100. Zhang, Y., & Barrett, P. (2012b). Factors influencing occupants’ blind-control behaviour in a naturally ventilated office building. Building and Environment, 54, 137–147.Google Scholar
  101. Zheng, G., Jing, Y., Huang, H., & Ma, P. (2009). Thermal comfort and indoor air quality of task ambient air conditioning in modern office buildings. In Information Management, Innovation Management and Industrial Engineering, 2009 International Conference (Vol. 2, pp 533–536). IEEE.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pranab Kumar Nag
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Environment and Disaster ManagementRamakrishna Mission Vivekananda UniversityKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations