Skip to main content

Ethical Considerations in Quantitative Tourism and Hospitality Researches

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Quantitative Tourism Research in Asia

Part of the book series: Perspectives on Asian Tourism ((PAT))

  • 1924 Accesses

Abstract

Research ethics is an extremely important part of every study. Tourism scholars receive guidance on ethical issues in research from different sources throughout their careers such as experiences from participation in research activities, quantitative data analysis or research methods methodology courses, short trainings, workshops, professional readings, and involving in peer-review processes. However, in a structured quantitative context, such as tourism and hospitality, the acquaintances and relationships between the research philosophy, design, and analysis choices related to research ethics are largely implicit and informal. That is, methodology scholars and research advisors might convey ethical principles and conducts about research design and data analysis, by reporting experientially and by modeling appropriate professional behavior. Thus, this chapter aims to provide a practical review of ethical issues in quantitative methods in tourism and hospitality researches. More specifically, this chapter focuses on several potential issues that might emerge in conducting research methods in tourism context. Data collection method and questionnaire design in this regard are considered as practical examples. Moreover, based on the principles of ethical issues in behavioral research, this chapter proposes and offers substantial guides in anticipating ethics in tourism and hospitality research.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 149.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Hardcover Book
USD 199.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • AAPOR. (2015, November). American Association for Public Opinion Research code of ethics. Retrieved from https://www.aapor.org/Standards-Ethics/AAPOR-Code-of-Ethics.aspx

  • Aiken, L. S., West, S. G., & Millsap, R. E. (2008). Doctoral training in statistics, measurement, and methodology in psychology: Replication and extension of Aiken, West, Sechrest, and Reno’s (1990) survey of PhD programs in North America. American Psychologist, 63(1), 32.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Albaum, G., Wiley, J., Roster, C., & Smith, S. M. (2011). Visiting item non-responses in internet survey data collection. International Journal of Market Research, 53(5), 687–703.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Allen, G. N., Burk, D. L., & Davis, G. B. (2006). Academic data collection in electronic environments: Defining acceptable use of internet resources. MIS Quarterly, 30(3), 599–610.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ariffin, A. A. M. (2013). Generic dimensionality of hospitality in the hotel industry: A host–guest relationship perspective. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 35(0), 171–179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2013.06.002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ariffin, A. A. M., & Maghzi, A. (2012). A preliminary study on customer expectations of hotel hospitality: Influences of personal and hotel factors. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(1), 191–198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2011.04.012.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Befring, E. (2015, November 03). Quantitative methods. Retrieved from https://www.etikkom.no/en/library/introduction/methods-and-approaches/quantitative-methods/

  • Behi, R., & Nolan, M. (1995). Ethical issues in research. British Journal of Nursing, 4(12), 712–716.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bernard, H. R. (2017). Research methods in anthropology: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boyer, K. K., Olson, J. R., Calantone, R. J., & Jackson, E. C. (2002). Print versus electronic surveys: A comparison of two data collection methodologies. Journal of Operations Management, 20(4), 357–373. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0272-6963(02)00004-9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chris Paxson, M. (2009). Boomer boom for hospitality: Opportunities and challenges. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 18(1), 89–98. https://doi.org/10.1080/19368620801989360.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chung, L. H., & Parker, L. D. (2010). Managing social and environmental action and accountability in the hospitality industry: A Singapore perspective. Accounting Forum, 34(1), 46–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.accfor.2009.10.003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Davidov, E., & Depner, F. (2011). Testing for measurement equivalence of human values across online and paper-and-pencil surveys. Quality & Quantity, 45(2), 375–390. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-009-9297-9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dopson, L. R., & Nelson, A. A. (2003). Future of hotel education: Required program content areas for graduates of US hospitality programs beyond the year 2000–part two. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education, 15(3), 11–17.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Duffy, R., & Smith, M. (2004). The ethics of tourism development. London: Routledge.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Eusebio, S., Jr., Joao Luiz, B., & Stuart, J. B. (2004). Developing automated e-survey and control tools: An application in industrial management. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 104(3), 189–200.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eysenbach, G., & Till, J. E. (2001). Ethical issues in qualitative research on internet communities. BMJ, 323(7321), 1103–1105.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fennell, D. (2013). The ethics of excellence in tourism research. Journal of Travel Research, 52(4), 417–425.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fennell, D. A., & Malloy, D. (2007). Codes of ethics in tourism: Practice, theory, synthesis (Vol. 33). Clevedon: Channel View Publications.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Finn, A., Wang, L., & Frank, T. (2009). Attribute perceptions, customer satisfaction and intention to recommend E-services. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 23(3), 209–220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intmar.2009.04.006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Frankel, M. S. (1989). Professional codes: Why, how, and with what impact? Journal of Business Ethics, 8(2–3), 109–115.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Frechtling, D. C. (2004). Assessment of tourism/hospitality journals’ role in knowledge transfer: An exploratory study. Journal of Travel Research, 43(2), 100–107.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Frechtling, D. C. (2017). On the ethics of tourism research. Journal of Travel Research, 004728751772975. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287517729756.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Freese, J. (2007). Replication standards for quantitative social science: Why not sociology? Sociological Methods & Research, 36(2), 153–172.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Heath, M., & Stewart, A. (2003). A comparison of online and postal data collection methods in marketing research. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 21(2), 85–95.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hobson, J. S. P., & Teaff, J. D. (1994). Hospitality and leisure/recreation. Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing, 2(1), 43–54. https://doi.org/10.1300/J150v02n01_05.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • James, B. W., Vallen, H., Gerald, A., & Peter, T. (2009). Selecting techniques for use in an internet survey. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 21(4), 455–474.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kaye, B. K., & Johnson, T. J. (1999). Research methodology: Taming the cyber frontier. Social Science Computer Review, 17(3), 323–337. https://doi.org/10.1177/089443939901700307.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Knani, M. (2014). Ethics in the hospitality industry: Review and research agenda. International Journal of Business and Management, 9(3), 1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Köseoglu, M. A., Sehitoglu, Y., Ross, G., & Parnell, J. A. (2016). The evolution of business ethics research in the realm of tourism and hospitality: A bibliometric analysis. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 28(8), 1598–1621.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lee, L. Y.-S., & Tsang, N. K. (2013). Perceptions of tourism and hotel management students on ethics in the workplace. Journal of teaching in travel & tourism, 13(3), 228–250.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lovelock, B., & Lovelock, K. (2013). The ethics of tourism: Critical and applied perspectives. London: Routledge.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • MacCannell, D. (2012). On the ethical stake in tourism research. Tourism Geographies, 14(1), 183–194.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Malhotra, N., & Krosnick, J. A. (2007). The effect of survey mode and sampling on inferences about political attitudes and behavior: Comparing the 2000 and 2004 ANES to internet surveys with nonprobability samples. Political Analysis, 15(3), 286–323. https://doi.org/10.1093/pan/mpm003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Malloy, D. C., & Fennell, D. A. (1998). Codes of ethics and tourism: An exploratory content analysis. Tourism Management, 19(5), 453–461.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Markham, A., & Buchanan, E. (2015). Ethical decision-making and internet research: Recommendations from the Aoir ethics working committee (version 2.0). Association of Internet Researchers, 2012.

    Google Scholar 

  • Martin, L., & Dirk, J. S. (2009). Internet research differs from research on internet users: Some methodological insights into online travel research. Tourism Review, 64(1), 32–47.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McLean, D. (1993). Ethics in hospitality management: Edited by Stephen SJ Hall. Educational Institute of the American Hotel and Motel Association (PO Box 1240, East Lansing MI 48826, USA) ISBN 0-86612-067-x, 1992, viii+ 285 pp.(exhibits, bibliography) $27.96. Annals of Tourism Research, 20(2), 384–388.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McMellon, C. A., & Schiffman, L. G. (2001). Cybersenior research: A practical approach to data collection. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 15(4), 46–55. https://doi.org/10.1002/dir.1022.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Moscardo, G. (2010). Tourism research ethics: Current considerations and future options. Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Panter, A. T., & Sterba, S. K. (2011). Handbook of ethics in quantitative methodology. New York: Routledge.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Park, I., Cho, J., & Rao, H. R. (2012). The effect of pre- and post-service performance on consumer evaluation of online retailers. Decision Support Systems, 52(2), 415–426. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dss.2011.10.001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Payne, J., & Barnfather, N. (2012). Online data collection in developing nations: An investigation into sample Bias in a sample of south African university students. Social Science Computer Review, 30(3), 389–397. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894439311407419.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Poria, Y., & Timothy, D. J. (2014). Where are the children in tourism research? Annals of Tourism Research, 47, 93–95.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ryan, C. (2005). Ethics in tourism research: Objectivities and personal perspectives. In Tourism research methods: Integrating theory with practice (pp. 9–19). Cambridge, MA: CABI.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Sethuraman, R., Kerin, R. A., & Cron, W. L. (2005). A field study comparing online and offline data collection methods for identifying product attribute preferences using conjoint analysis. Journal of Business Research, 58(5), 602–610. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2003.09.009.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shiu, E. C. C., & Dawson, J. A. (2004). Comparing the impacts of internet technology and national culture on online usage and purchase from a four-country perspective. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 11(6), 385–394. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2003.12.004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sills, S. J., & Song, C. (2002). Innovations in survey research. Social Science Computer Review, 20(1), 22–30. https://doi.org/10.1177/089443930202000103.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stieger, S., & Reips, U.-D. (2010). What are participants doing while filling in an online questionnaire: A paradata collection tool and an empirical study. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(6), 1488–1495. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2010.05.013.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Teng, C.-C. (2011). Commercial hospitality in restaurants and tourist accommodation: Perspectives from international consumer experience in Scotland. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(4), 866–874. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2011.01.007.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thirumalai, S., & Sinha, K. K. (2011). Customization of the online purchase process in electronic retailing and customer satisfaction: An online field study. Journal of Operations Management, 29(5), 477–487. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jom.2010.11.009.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Turunen, M., Paanala, A., Villman, J., Nevalainen, A., & Haverinen-Shaughnessy, U. (2010). Evaluating housing quality, health and safety using an internet-based data collection and response system: A cross-sectional study. Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source, 9, 69–69.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • WAPOR. (2011, December 1). World Association for Public Opinion Research code of ethics. Retrieved from https://wapor.org/about-wapor/code-of-ethics/

  • Wasserman, R. (2013). Ethical issues and guidelines for conducting data analysis in psychological research. Ethics & Behavior, 23(1), 3–15.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wharton, C. M., Hampl, J. S., Hall, R., & Winham, D. M. (2003). PCs or paper-and-pencil: Online surveys for data collection. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 103(11), 1458–1459. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2003.09.004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilkins, H., Merrilees, B., & Herington, C. (2009). The determinants of loyalty in hotels. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 19(1), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/19368620903327626.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilkinson, L. (1999). Statistical methods in psychology journals: Guidelines and explanations. American Psychologist, 54(8), 594.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Willis, P. (2012). Talking sexuality online – Technical, methodological and ethical considerations of online research with sexual minority youth. Qualitative Social Work, 11(2), 141–155. https://doi.org/10.1177/1473325011400488.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yeh, R. (2012). Hotel general managers’ perceptions of business ethics education: Implications for hospitality educators, professionals, and students. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 11(1), 72–86.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yetter, G., & Capaccioli, K. (2010). Differences in responses to web and paper surveys among school professionals. Behavior Research Methods, 42(1), 266–272.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2019 Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Emami, M., Rezaei, S., Sangani, B., Goh, SK. (2019). Ethical Considerations in Quantitative Tourism and Hospitality Researches. In: Rezaei, S. (eds) Quantitative Tourism Research in Asia. Perspectives on Asian Tourism. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-2463-5_15

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics