Introduction to Trigeminal Neuralgia
Trigeminal neuralgia (TGN) refers to recurrent lancinating pain that occurs in the distribution of one or more branches of the fifth cranial nerve. It is one of the commonest types of craniofacial pain disorders. The pain perception is typically unilateral, abrupt in onset, brief in duration, and usually starts after trivial stimuli. With progression of TGN, the interval between bouts of pain shorten. In advanced cases, patients may report of pain at most times of the day and pain relief with oral drugs may be very poor. The pain is most commonly felt in the distribution of maxillary (V2) or mandibular (V3) divisions of the trigeminal nerve . Less common presentations include combinations of ophthalmic (V1) and V2, V2 and V3, or all three divisions . Solitary involvement of V1 division is very rare.
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