Technique to Produce Catalyst from Egg Shell and Coconut Waste for Biodiesel Production

  • Sarina SulaimanEmail author
  • Nur Syakirah Talha


Many studies have been conducted to develop low cost catalysts to reduce the production cost. Several catalysts such as homogeneous/heterogeneous acid catalysts, homogeneous/heterogeneous base catalysts and biocatalysts (enzymes) have been studied and applied in the synthesis of biodiesel. Base-catalyzed transesterification is commonly used in commercial production because of high FAME yield in short reaction time and the reaction can be done in mild conditions as compared to acid-catalyzed transesterification. In the present study, egg shell and coconut waste were synthesized using calcination method at 800 °C for 4 h. SEM micrographs prove that the mixture of catalyst shows a bigger surface area. This result is expected to increase the yield of biodiesel. It can be concluded that biodiesel was produced successfully using palm oil and mixed catalysts.


Catalyst Coconut waste Biodiesel Waste catalyst Calcination Characterization Egg shell Scanning electron microscopy Restaurant Waste Transesterification 



The research was funded by FRGS grant (FRGS 13-079-0320) from the Government of Malaysia.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Kulliyyah of EngineeringInternational Islamic University MalaysiaKuala LumpurMalaysia

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