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Plant Physiology in Agriculture and Biotechnology

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Plant Physiology, Development and Metabolism

Abstract

Plant physiology has significantly contributed to the feeding of human beings. Applications of our knowledge of key concepts and processes in plant physiology are continuously evolving with time. Plants face a number of constraints in their optimal growth right from seed germination. They have to face challenges of weeds which compete with crop plants for limited availability of nutrients. Through our current understanding of the process of water and nutrient absorption and photosynthesis, farmers in the current era are able to optimize nutrient uptake and eradicate weeds in the crop fields. Early observations on the significance of ethylene in senescence and fruit maturation got extended into our present-day extensive knowledge of plant growth regulators and their derivatives in controlling fruit maturation, lodging, grapevine production, vegetable production, and fruit maturation. Of late, biotechnological approaches have also encouraged scientists to explore the possibility of producing transgenic fruits, reduce caffeine content in tea and coffee, and produce key metabolites in bulk for use by mankind. This chapter focuses on the key applications of the principles of plant physiology which have led to enhanced crop productivity.

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Suggested Further Readings

  • Park S, Moon Y, Mills SA, Waterland NL (2016) Evaluation of antitranspirants for enhancing temporary water stress tolerance in bedding plants. Hortic Technol 26(4):444–452

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  • Rademacher W (2015) Plant growth regulators: background and uses in plant. J Plant Growth Regul 34:845–872

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  • Rohwer CL, Erwin JE (2008) Horticultural applications of jasmonates: a review. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 83(3):283–304

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Author information

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Authors

Multiple-Choice Questions

Multiple-Choice Questions

  1. 1.

    Parasitic weeds are difficult to be removed from crop fields because:

    1. (a)

      Enormous numbers of seeds are produced by them.

    2. (b)

      Seeds have long life.

    3. (c)

      Seeds are covered with water impervious material.

    4. (d)

      Both a and b.

  2. 2.

    Trehalose is a disaccharide formed by:

    1. (a)

      Two alpha glucose units

    2. (b)

      Glucose and fructose

    3. (c)

      Two fructose units

    4. (d)

      Glucose and galactose

  3. 3.

    Which of the following is used for reducing fruit russetting in apples?

    1. (a)

      Auxins

    2. (b)

      Mixture of GA4 and GA7

    3. (c)

      GA3

    4. (d)

      Cytokinins

  4. 4.

    Which of the following agents was used to destroy crops during the Vietnam War?

    1. (a)

      GA3

    2. (b)

      Zeatin

    3. (c)

      A mixture of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T

    4. (d)

      Ethephon

  5. 5.

    Loss of crop yield due to lodging can be reduced by applying:

    1. (a)

      Chlormequat chloride

    2. (b)

      Metconazole

    3. (c)

      Triazole tebuconazole

    4. (d)

      All of the above

  6. 6.

    The production of fruit bypassing the need for pollination and fertilization is called as:

    1. (a)

      Parthenogenesis

    2. (b)

      Stenospermocarpy

    3. (c)

      Parthenocarpy

    4. (d)

      Vegetative propagation

  7. 7.

    The enzyme responsible for degradation of pectin in fruits is:

    1. (a)

      Trehalase

    2. (b)

      Phosphatase

    3. (c)

      Polyphenol oxidase

    4. (d)

      Polygalacturonase

  8. 8.

    The genetically modified Flavr Savr tomato was engineered to:

    1. (a)

      Increase the production of secondary metabolites

    2. (b)

      Prevent lodging

    3. (c)

      Have a longer shelf life

    4. (d)

      Produce pulpier fruits

  9. 9.

    The distinctive character of tea is due to:

    1. (a)

      Theol, theine, tannins

    2. (b)

      Tannins, caffeol, theine

    3. (c)

      Tannins, theobromine, caffeine

    4. (d)

      Theol, theine, caffeine

  10. 10.

    Glyphosate-resistant crops were first introduced by:

    1. (a)

      Monsanto

    2. (b)

      BASF

    3. (c)

      Calgene Inc.

    4. (d)

      Mitsui petrochemical industries

Answers

1. d

2. a

3. b

4. c

5. d

6. c

7. d

8. c

9. a

10. a

  

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Cite this chapter

Bhatla, S.C. (2018). Plant Physiology in Agriculture and Biotechnology. In: Plant Physiology, Development and Metabolism. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-2023-1_34

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