Advertisement

MGNREGS and Housing Programmes: Checks and Balances to Prevent Elite or Programme Capture

Chapter
  • 183 Downloads

Abstract

It is now very well recognised that elite capture in development programmes and schemes is likely to occur in societies where socio-economic inequality is more pronounced and where people are unable to raise their voices against the powerful elite. Hence, policymakers usually incorporate checks and balances into a development programme or scheme to prevent elite capture. This is true of MGNREGS and housing programmes as well. In this chapter, we present the checks and balances incorporated in MGNREGS and housing programmes, and examine the extent to which these checks and balances have worked.

References

  1. Rajasekhar, D and R Manjula (2005). Performance of SGSY in Karnataka. Bengaluru: Institute for Social and Economic Change (mimeo).Google Scholar
  2. Rajasekhar, D and Suchitra J Y (2007). Employment Insecurity: Evidence on Agricultural Labourers from Karnataka’, in Jayasheela and V. Basil Hans (eds.) Rural Karnataka, Serials Publications, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  3. Besley, Timothy and Stephen Coate (1992). Workfare Vs. Welfare: Incentive Arguments for Work Requirements in Poverty Alleviation Programs, American Economic Review. 82 (1): 249–61.Google Scholar
  4. Government of India (2008). The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) 2005, Operational Guidelines 2008 (3rd edition), Ministry of Rural Development, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  5. Singh, Shekhar and S Rajakutty (2007). Social Audit: A Peoples Manual, National Institute of Rural Development, Hyderabad. http://nrega.nic.in/so_audit.htm Accessed on November 3, 2012.
  6. Dreze, Jean and Christian Oldiges (2007). How is NREGA Doing? http://www.ansiss.org/doc/seminar2007July20-22/jean_dreze.doc Accessed September 19, 2009.
  7. MoRD (2012). MGNREGA Sameeksha: An Anthology of Research Studies on the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005, 2006–2012, Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India, Orient BlackSwan.Google Scholar
  8. Pankaj, Ashok and Rukmini Tankha, (2010). Empowerment Effects of the NREGS on Women Workers: A Study in Four States. Economic and Political Weekly. July 24, Vol. XLV(30): 45–55.Google Scholar
  9. Narayanan, Sudha and Das, Upasak (2014). Women Participation and Rationing in the Employment Guarantee Scheme. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. XLIX, Issue No. 46, pp. 46–53.Google Scholar
  10. Carswell, Grace and Neve, Geert De (2013). Women at the Crossroads: Implementation of Employment Guarantee Scheme in Rural Tamil Nadu. Economic and Political Weekly. Vol. XLVIII. No. 52, pp. 82–93.Google Scholar
  11. Berg, Erlend, Bhattacharyya, Rajasekhar D and Manjula R (2018). Can Public Works Increase Equilibrium Wages? Evidence from India’s National Rural Employment Guarantee, World Development, 103 (2018): 239–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Imbert, Clément and John Papp (2012). Equilibrium Distributional Impacts of Government Employment Programs: Evidence from India’s Employment Guarantee. Paris School of Economics Working Paper 2012–14.Google Scholar
  13. Azam, Mehtabul (2012). The Impact of Indian Job Guarantee Scheme on Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from a Natural Experiment. Discussion Paper No. 6548. IZA: Berlin, Germany.Google Scholar
  14. World Bank (2011). Social Protection for a Changing India. Volume 2. World Bank, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  15. Shah, Deepak and Souna Mohanty (2010). Implementation of NREGA during Eleventh Plan in Maharashtra: Experiences, Challenges and Ways Forward, Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 65 (3).Google Scholar
  16. Bhatia, Bela and Jean Dreze (2006). Employment Guarantee in Jharkhand: Ground Realities, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. XLI (29): 3198–3202, July 22nd.Google Scholar
  17. PAC (2008). Pilot Social Audit of MGNREGA in Gulbarga District, Karnataka, Public Affairs Centre, Bengaluru http://www.pacindia.org Accessed on May 7, 2010.
  18. Kumar, Parmod and I Maruthi (2011). Impact of NREGA on Wage Rate, Food Security and Rural Urban Migration in Karnataka, Agricultural Development and Rural Transformation Centre, Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bengaluru (mimeo).Google Scholar
  19. Rajasekhar, D (2012). Local Self-Government in India: An Overview, Management Review, Vol 6, Issue 1, July.Google Scholar
  20. Babu, M Devendra, D Rajasekhar and R Manjula (2010). “Dominance and Capture in the Implementation of MGNREGS: A Case Study in Karnataka”. Paper presented in the seminar on Barriers to Participation and Inclusion in Panchayat Raj Institutions: The Case of Elite/Program Capture, held at ISEC, Bengaluru, on June 28, 2010.Google Scholar
  21. Pani, N. & Chidambaran G. I (2011). Evaluation of the Impact of Processes in the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme in Karnataka, Bengaluru: National Institute of Advance Studies.Google Scholar
  22. Bhatty, Kiran (2006). Employment Guarantee and Child Rights, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 41 (20): 1965–67, May 20–26.Google Scholar
  23. Mehrotra, Santosh (2008). NREG Two Years On: Where Do We Go from Here? Economic and Political Weekly, August 2, Vol. 43 (31): 27–35.Google Scholar
  24. Khera, Reetika (2010). Wages of Delay. In Frontline Vol. 27, Issue 10, May 8–21.Google Scholar
  25. Vanaik, Anish and Siddhartha (2008). Bank Payments: End of Corruption in NREGA? Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. XLIII (17): 33–39, April 26.Google Scholar
  26. Adhikari Anindita, Kartika Bhatia (2010). NREGA Wage Payments: Can We Bank on the Banks? Economic & Political Weekly, January 2, Vol. XLV (1): 30–37.Google Scholar
  27. Shah, Mihir (2008a). Direct Cash Transfer: No Magic Bullet, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 43 (34): 77–79.Google Scholar
  28. Aakella, Karuna Vakati and Sowmya Kidambi (2007). Social Audits in Andhra Pradesh: A Process in Evolution, Economic and Political Weekly, November 24, Vol. 42 (47):18–19.Google Scholar
  29. Shah, Mihir (2008b). The Real Radicalism of NREGA, The Hindu, 22 May. http://www.nregaconsortium.in/resources.html Accessed on 26 March 2010.
  30. NIRD (2008). Evaluation of Implementation of MGNREGA in Orissa: Social Audit Report, Centre for Monitoring, Planning and Evaluation, NIRD, Hyderabad. http://www.nregaconsortium.in/resources.html Accessed on March 26, 2010.
  31. Rajasekhar, D and R Manjula (2012). Affordability of Streetlight Services by Gram Panchayats in Karnataka: Status, Determinants and Ways Forward, Journal of Rural Development, Vol. 31 (4): 419–434.Google Scholar
  32. Gopal, K S (2009). NREGA Social Audit: Myths and Reality, Economic and Political Weekly, January 17, Vol. XLIV(03): 70–71.Google Scholar
  33. Afridi, Farzana (2008). Can Community Monitoring Improve the Accountability of Public Officials?, Economic and Political Weekly, October 18, Vol. 43 (42): 35–40.Google Scholar
  34. Mukhopadhyay, Amitabh (2005). Social Audit. http://www.india-seminar.com/2005/551/551%20amitabh%20mukhopadhyay.htm Accessed on January 21, 2013.
  35. Vaddiraju, Anil Kumar and Shagun Mehrotra (2004). Making Panchayats Accountable, Economic and Political Weekly, September 11, Vol. XXXIX (37): 4139–41.Google Scholar
  36. Lakha, Salim (2011). Accountability from Below: The Experience of MGNREGA in Rajasthan (India), Asia Research Institute Working Paper Series No. 171, December, National University of Singapore. http://www.ari.nus.edu.sg/docs/wps/wps11_171.pdf. Accessed on February 5, 2013.
  37. Aiyer, Yamini and Salimah Samji (2009). Transparency and Accountability in MGNREGA: A Case Study of Andhra Pradesh, Accountability Initiative Working Paper Series, Working Paper No. 1, February 2009, Centre for Policy Research, New Delhi. http://www.accountabilityindia.org/admin/uploads/publicationfiles/31_1244199489.pdf Accessed 24 September 2009.
  38. Lakha, Salim, D Rajasekhar and Manjula R (2012). What is Happening to Social Audit under MGNREGS? Observations from Karnataka. Institute for Social and Economic Change: Bengaluru (mimeo).Google Scholar
  39. Ambasta, Pramathesh, P. S. Vijay Shankar and Mihir Shah (2008). Two Years of NREGA: The Road Ahead, Economic and Political Weekly, February 23, Vol 43 (8): 41–50.Google Scholar
  40. Nayak, Radhika, N C Saxena and John Farrington (2002). Reaching the Poor: The Influence of Policy and Administrative Processes on the Implementation of Government Poverty Schemes in India, ODI Working Paper No. 175. Overseas Development Institute, London, UK. http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/2003.pdf Accessed on May 6, 2010.
  41. Singh, Thiyam Bharat (2007). Poverty in Manipur, Economic and Political Weekly, January 20, Vol. 42 (03): 251–54.Google Scholar
  42. Farrington, John and Rachel Slater (2009). Lump Sum Cash Transfers Developmental and Post-Emergency Contexts: How Well Have They Performed? Cash Transfers Series, Overseas Development Institute. UK. http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/4691.pdf Accessed May 6, 2010.
  43. Comptroller and Auditor General of India (2010). Report of the Task Group on Social Audit, Office of the Comptroller and Audit General of India, January. http://cag.gov.in/Social%20Audit.pdf Accessed on January 21, 2013.
  44. Dutta, Puja, Rinku Murugai, Martin Ravallion and Dominique van de Walle (2012). Does India’s Employment Guarantee Scheme Guarantee Employment? Policy Research Working Paper 6003, The World Bank Development Research Group.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Decentralisation and DevelopmentInstitute for Social and Economic Change (ISEC)BengaluruIndia

Personalised recommendations