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Petroleum Microbiology Under Extreme Conditions

  • Oluwadara Oluwaseun Alegbeleye
Chapter

Abstract

Petroleum contamination of environmental matrices is a pervasive, global problem. Crude oil exploration, processing, handling and transport release significant amounts of petro-hydrocarbons into the ecosystem. Many petro-compounds are recognized or suspected as carcinogens, mutagens and teratogens and, therefore, pose significant risks to human and ecosystem health. Petroleum hydrocarbon pollution constitutes an enormous challenge when areas with suboptimal environmental conditions are contaminated. This is because these regions are characterized by the occurrence of delicate ecosystems and because remedial efforts tend to be frustrated, owing to the unfavourable climatic and environmental conditions. Due to extensive petroleum exploration in some of these areas, petroleum hydrocarbon contamination occurs frequently, degrading the environment. Efficacious, sustainable abatement strategies are therefore, necessary to mitigate contamination.

Over time, several treatment schemes and strategies for the replenishment of petroleum-contaminated sites have been designed, optimized and implemented. Many conventional techniques and technologies, however, have well-known drawbacks. This has prompted research into eco-friendly and economical cleaning alternatives. Biological remediation is interesting choice, which has been the widespread research topic and has been adopted in many parts of the world because of its (comparative) low-cost, minimal environmental impacts and public acceptance. Here, the general sources of petroleum hydrocarbons into the environment are explored as well as the effects of physicochemical and environmental factors on the transportation, microbiology and overall fate of petro-products in environmental matrices. The potential of petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation under extreme environmental conditions is considered with an emphasis on the effects of unfavourable salinity, temperature, moisture, oxygen, nutrient, pressure and pH conditions. The roles of extremophiles in petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in extreme environments are also discussed. The influence of biosurfactants and the capacity of extremophiles to produce these under extreme environmental conditions are discussed as well as the relevance of bioaugmentation and biostimulation. Bioavailability, which influences the overall rate and efficiency of bioremediation protocols, is also considered.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author gratefully acknowledges the financial support of Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnológico (CNPq) (award grant number 148279/2017-1).

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oluwadara Oluwaseun Alegbeleye
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food EngineeringUniversity of Campinas-Sao PauloCampinasBrazil

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