Conclusion: Innovation from Below



Two new concepts, systemic technology choice and interlocking innovations, are summarized. Four modes of science and technology circulation (diffusion, appropriation, translation, and contestation) are likewise summarized. The conceptual contribution of contestation in a global field of science and its relationship to circular causality in the multi-level of perspective is illuminated. The implications of the dual regime thesis for the multi-level perspective on socio-technical system transitions and multi-regime interactions are revealed. New questions and future work are proposed for science and technology studies and international relations theory. The surprise of the Aravind model traveling from India to the USA is briefly discussed.


Innovation Engagement Multi-level Perspective Dual Regime Regime Thesis Socio-technical Regime 
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© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Logan Williams Consultancy Services, LLCCumberlandUSA

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