Advertisement

Origins of an Autonomous Global Network to Eradicate Blindness

Chapter
  • 96 Downloads

Abstract

Marginalized actors began to create an autonomous global network that would challenge the incumbent regime. After the WHO eradicated smallpox, many Western and South Asian medical professionals hoped to eradicate avoidable blindness. Public health, ophthalmology, and other professionals from India, Nepal, Israel, the UK, the USA, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Australia formed strong personal and professional links. They began an autonomous global network with specific advocacy goals and a cognitive rule to eradicate and control blindness that guided their future efforts. Their relationships informed their creation of: a new multilateral nonprofit, non-governmental organization called the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness, and the WHO Prevention of Blindness program. They utilized their own interpretations of Dr. Patricia E. Bath’s concept of community ophthalmology to create plans for eye health care in rural areas of the global south.

Keywords

Blindness Control Blindness Program Community Ophthalmology Public Health Ophthalmology Venkataswamy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Agarwal, L. 1977. “National Programme for Prevention of Visual Impairment and Control of Blindness.” Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 25 (4): 1–5.Google Scholar
  2. Arnold, David. 2005. “Europe, Technology, and Colonialism in the 20th Century.” History and Technology: An International Journal 21 (1): 85–106.Google Scholar
  3. Bath, Patricia Era. 1976. “Rationale for a Program in Community Ophthalmology.” Paper presented at the American Public Health Association, Miami, FL.Google Scholar
  4. ———. 1978. “Blindness Prevention through Programs of Community Ophthalmology in Developing Countries.” XXIII Concilium Ophthalmologicum, Kyoto, International Congress Series No. 450, 2 (May): 1913–15.Google Scholar
  5. ———. 1979. “Rationale for a Program in Community Ophthalmology.” Journal of the National Medical Association 71: 145.Google Scholar
  6. Bath, Patricia E., C. O. Quarcoopome, and Taj H. Kirmani. 1983. “Community Ophthalmology Plan for Underserved Populations.” ACTA XXIV International Congress of Ophthalmology 2: 13–17.Google Scholar
  7. Bhattacharya, Sanjoy. 2006. “Universalist Claims Selective Upgrades The Complexities of Health Policy Reformulations in India 1947–1960.” In Expunging Variola: The Control and Eradication of Smallpox in India, 1947–1977, 12–44. New Delhi: Orient Longman.Google Scholar
  8. Bijker, Wiebe E. 1987. “The Social Construction of Bakelite: Toward a Theory of Invention.” In The Social Construction of Technological Systems: New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology, edited by Wiebe E. Bijker, Thomas Parke Hughes, and Trevor J. Pinch, 155–82. MIT Press.Google Scholar
  9. Brilliant, L. B., R. P. Pokhrel, N. C. Grasset, J. M. Lepkowski, A. Kolstad, W. Hawks, R. Pararajasegaram, G. E. Brilliant, S. Gilbert, and S. R. Shrestha. 1985. “Epidemiology of Blindness in Nepal.” Bulletin of the World Health Organization 63 (2): 375–86.Google Scholar
  10. Chand, Priyankar Bahadur, and Ramesh Kharel. 2015. “Politics of Primary Health Care in Nepal.” In Health for All: The Journey of Universal Health Coverage, edited by Alexander Medcalf, Sanjoy Bhattacharya, Hooman Momen, Monica Saavedra, and Margaret Jones, 35–44. Hyderabad, Telangana, India: Orient Blackswan.Google Scholar
  11. Elliot, Robert H. 1917. The Indian Operation of Couching for Cataract. London, UK: H. K. Lewis and Co. Ltd. The Foundation of the American Academy of Ophthalmology Museum of Vision & Ophthalmic Heritage. San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  12. Fenner, Frank, Donald Ainslie Henderson, Isao Arita, ZdenEk JeZek, and Ivan Danilovich Ladnyi. 1988. “Chapter 15: India and the Himalayan Area.” In Smallpox and Its Eradication, History of International Public Health. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  13. Foster, Allen, and Serge Resnikoff. 2005. “The Impact of Vision 2020 on Global Blindness.” Eye 19 (10): 1133–35.Google Scholar
  14. Geels, Frank W. 2005. “Conceptual Perspective on Sytems Innovations and Technological Transitions.” In Technological Transitions and System Innovations: A Co-evolutionary and Socio-Technical Analysis, 75–102. Cheltenham and Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  15. Geels, Frank W., and Johan Schot. 2007. “Typology of Sociotechnical Transition Pathways.” Research Policy 36 (3): 399–417.Google Scholar
  16. Goldner, Melinda. 2004. “The Dynamic Interplay between Western Medicine and the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Movement: How Activists Perceive a Range of Responses from Physicians and Hospitals.” Sociology of Health & Illness 26 (6): 710–36.Google Scholar
  17. Hachhethu, Krishna. 2003. “Democracy And Nationalism: Interface Between State And Ethnicity In Nepal.” Contributions to Nepali Studies 30 (2): 21–252.Google Scholar
  18. Harris, Joseph. 2015. “Who Governs? Autonomous Political Networks as a Challenge to Power in Thailand.” Journal of Contemporary Asia 45 (1): 3–25.Google Scholar
  19. Henderson, Donald A. 2008. “Smallpox: Dispelling the Myths. An Interview with Donald Henderson.” Bulletin of the World Health Organization 86 (12): 909–88.Google Scholar
  20. Hess, David J. 2007. Alternative Pathways in Science and Industry: Activism, Innovation, and the Environment in an Era of Globalization. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  21. ———. 2016. Undone Science: Social Movements, Mobilized Publics, and Industrial Transitions. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  22. Heydon, Susan. 2011. “Medicines, Travellers and the Introduction and Spread of ‘Modern’ Medicine in the Mt Everest Region of Nepal.” Medical History 55 (4): 503–21.Google Scholar
  23. Hughes, Thomas Parke. 1987. “The Evolution of Large Technological Systems.” In The Social Construction of Technological Systems: New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology, edited by Wiebe E. Bijker, Thomas Parke Hughes, and Trevor J. Pinch, 51–82. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  24. IAPB. 1982. “International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness 2nd General Assembly, New Horizons, Washington, DC. October 24–28, 1982.” GVERI Resources Collection Box No. ORG-20. Govindappa Venkataswamy Eye Research Institute, Aravind Eye Care System, Madurai, India.Google Scholar
  25. ———. 1986. “International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness 3rd General Assembly, A Decade of Progress, New Delhi, India December 6–11, 1986.” GVERI Resources Collection Box No. ORG-20. Govindappa Venkataswamy Eye Research Institute, Aravind Eye Care System, Madurai, India.Google Scholar
  26. ———. 1990. “International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness 4th General Assembly, Sustainable Strategies—Agenda for the 1990s, Kenyatta International Conference Center, Nairobi, Kenya, November 11–15, 1990.” GVERI Resources Collection Box No. ORG-20. Govindappa Venkataswamy Eye Research Institute, Aravind Eye Care System, Madurai, India.Google Scholar
  27. ———. 1994. “International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness 5th General Assembly, Towards Affordable, Accessible, Appropriate Eye Care, International Conference Center, Berlin, Germany, May 8–13, 1994.” Berlin, Germany: International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness. GVERI Resources Collection Box No. ORG-20. Govindappa Venkataswamy Eye Research Institute, Aravind Eye Care System, Madurai, India.Google Scholar
  28. ———. 1995 [1974]. “IAPB Constitution.” West Sussex: International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness. GVERI Resources Collection Box No. ORG-20. Govindappa Venkataswamy Eye Research Institute, Aravind Eye Care System, Madurai, India.Google Scholar
  29. ———. 2004. “Introduction: What Is IAPB?” IAPB-What Is IAPB. http://www.iapb.org/wat_iapb.htm.
  30. ———. 2016. “IAPB History.” IAPB History | International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness. http://www.iapb.org/about-iapb/iapb-history.
  31. ———. 2018a. “VISION 2020: The Right to Sight- IAPB.” International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness. 2018. https://www.iapb.org/vision-2020/.
  32. ———. 2018b. “IAPB Regions.” IAPB. 2018. https://www.iapb.org/iapb-regions/.
  33. International Health Conference. 1948. “WHO Constitution.” In Summary Report on Proceedings, Minutes and Final Acts of the International Health Conference Held in New York from 19 June to 22 July 1946, 100–9. New York: United Nations, World Health Organization, Interim Commission. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/85573.
  34. Johns, Alan. 1990. “The International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness and Non-Governmental Organisations: An Effective Network.” International Ophthalmology 14 (3): 227–30.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00158323.
  35. Johnson, Gordon J. 1989. “Community Ophthalmology. By Syed Modasser Ali, pp. 144. Tk.150. Anamoy: Bangladesh. 1985.” The British Journal of Ophthalmology 73 (7): 583.Google Scholar
  36. Johnson, Ryan. 2008. “Tabloid Brand Medicine Chests: Selling Health and Hygiene for the British Tropical Colonies.” Science As Culture 17 (3): 249–68.Google Scholar
  37. Jose, R., and Damodar Bachani. 1995. “World Bank-Assisted Cataract Blindness Control Project.” Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 43 (1): 35.Google Scholar
  38. Knapp, Alfred. 1908. “On Extraction of Cataract in the Capsule: Report of a Visit to Major Henry Smith in Jullunder, India.” Arch Ophthalmol 190 (37): 13–15. San Francisco, CA: The Foundation of the American Academy of Ophthalmology Museum of Vision & Ophthalmic Heritage.Google Scholar
  39. Kupfer, Carl. 1987. “Public Health Ophthalmology.” The British Journal of Ophthalmology 71 (2): 116–17.Google Scholar
  40. Kupfer, Carl, and Edward H. McManus. 2009. History of the National Eye Institute: 1968–2000. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute.Google Scholar
  41. Latour, Bruno. 1987. Science in Action: How to Follow Scientists and Engineers Through Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Leaver, Peter. 2009. “Obituaries: Professor Barrie R. Jones CBE Bsc (NZ) FRCS (Eng) FRCP (Lon) Hon FRACS.” Retrieved February 25, 2013. http://www.moorfields.nhs.uk/Healthprofessionals/MoorfieldsAlumniAssociation/Alumninews/Obituaries.
  43. Madras Medical College. n.d. “Madras Medical College ::: ASSOCIATED INSTITUTIONS: Regional Institute of Ophthalmology Institution History.” Directorate of Medical Education, Government of Tamil Nadu. Accessed February 22, 2018. http://www.mmc.ac.in/mmc/content_page.jsp?sq1=eye&sqf=404.
  44. Manandhar, Tri Ratna. 2005. “British Residents at the Court of Nepal During the 19th Century.” Voice of History 20 (1): 5–22.Google Scholar
  45. Manikutty, Sankaran, and Neharika Vohra. 2004. Aravind Eye Care System: Giving Them the Most Precious Gift. Ahmedabad: Indian Institute of Management.Google Scholar
  46. Marasini, Babu Ram. 2003. “Health and Hospital Development in Nepal: Past and Present.” Journal of Nepal Medical Association 42 (149): 306–11.Google Scholar
  47. Marseille, Elliot. 1994. “Intraocular Lenses, Blindness Control, and the Hiding Hand.” In Rethinking the Development Experience: Essays Provoked by the Work of Albert O. Hirschman, edited by Lloyd Rodwin and Donald A. Schön, 147–75. Washington, DC and Cambridge, MA: Brookings Institution and Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.Google Scholar
  48. Martin, Douglas. 1999. “J.F. Wilson, 80, Whose Work Saved Millions From Blindness.” The New York Times, December 6, sec. World. http://www.nytimes.com/1999/12/06/world/jf-wilson-80-whose-work-saved-millions-from-blindness.html.
  49. Mehta, Pavithra K., and Suchitra Shenoy. 2011. Infinite Vision: How Aravind Became the World’s Greatest Business Case for Compassion. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.Google Scholar
  50. Metcalfe, J. Stanley, Andrew James, and Andrea Mina. 2005. “Emergent Innovation Systems and the Delivery of Clinical Services: The Case of Intra-Ocular Lenses.” Research Policy 34 (9): 1283–304.Google Scholar
  51. Moore, Kelly. 1999. “Political Protest and Institutional Change: The Anti-Vietnam War Movement and American Science.” In How Social Movements Matter, edited by Marco Giugni, Doug McAdam, and Charles Tilly, 10: 97–118. University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  52. ———. 2006. “Powered by the People: Scientific Authority in Participatory Science.” In The New Political Sociology of Science: Institutions, Networks, and Power, edited by Scott Frickel and Kelly Moore. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  53. Mooreville, Anat. 2016. “Eyeing Africa: The Politics of Israeli Ocular Expertise and International Aid, 1959–1973.” Jewish Social Studies 21 (3): 31–71.Google Scholar
  54. Murthy, G. V. S., Sanjeev K. Gupta, Neena John, and Praveen Vashist. 2008. “Current Status of Cataract Blindness and Vision 2020: The Right to Sight Initiative in India.” Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 56 (6): 489.Google Scholar
  55. Mushtaq, Muhammad Umair. 2009. “Public Health in British India: A Brief Account of the History of Medical Services and Disease Prevention in Colonial India.” Indian Journal of Community Medicine: Official Publication of Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine 34 (1): 6–14.Google Scholar
  56. Nair, Aparna. 2017. “‘They Shall See His Face’: Blindness in British India, 1850–1950.” Medical History 61 (2): 181–99.Google Scholar
  57. NNJS. 2015. “Nepal Netra Jyoti Sangh (NNJS).” http://nnjs.org.np.
  58. Ocular Surgery News Asia Pacific Edition. 2002. “India’s Government Tackles Challenges of Eye Care.” Ocular Surgery News Asia Pacific Edition, March. http://www.healio.com/news/print/ocular-surgery-news-europe-asia-edition/%7B718ad951-a6e3-403d-9f92-9c34e8c06c72%7D/indias-government-tackles-challenges-of-eye-care.
  59. Packard, Randall M. 2016. A History of Global Health Interventions into the Lives of Other Peoples. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Pascolini, Donatella, and Silvio Paolo Mariotti. 2012. “Global Estimates of Visual Impairment: 2010.” British Journal of Ophthalmology 96 (5): 614–18.Google Scholar
  61. Planning Commission. 2002. “Annual Plan 2003–04: Chapter 4 Human and Social Development.” Annual Five Year Plans. New Delhi, India: Government of India. http://planningcommission.nic.in/plans/annualplan/ap0304pdf/ap0304_ch4.pdf.
  62. Pokharel, Bhojraj. 2001. “Decentralization of Health Services.” SEA-HSD-245 2000. New Delhi, India: World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia.Google Scholar
  63. Pokhrel, Ram Prasad. 2003. Reaching the Unreached: Three Decades of Struggle in Nepal. Kathmandu: International Forum. Retrieved April 30, 2009 (http://www.rppokhrel.com/index.php?pageid=pub).
  64. Preobragenski, V. V., and U. C. Gupta. 1964. “The National Trachoma Control Programme in India.” Journal of the All-India Ophthalmological Society 12 (July): 68–73.Google Scholar
  65. Raj, Kapil. 2006. Relocating Modern Science: Circulation and the Construction of Knowledge in South Asia and Europe, 1650–1900. New Delhi: Permanent Black.Google Scholar
  66. Rankin, Katharine N. 2004. The Cultural Politics of Markets: Economic Liberalization And Social Change In Nepal. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  67. Rathinam, S. R., and E. T. Cunningham. 2010. “Vitiligo Iridis in Patients with a History of Smallpox Infection.” Eye 24 (10): 1621–22.Google Scholar
  68. Rogers, Leonard. 1944. “Smallpox and Vaccination in British India during the Last Seventy Years.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 38 (November): 135–39.Google Scholar
  69. Rubin, Harriet. 2000. “Dr. Brilliant vs. the Devil of Ambition.” Fast Company, September 30. Retrieved February 1, 2012. http://www.fastcompany.com/41704/dr-brilliant-vs-devil-ambition.
  70. SEVA. 1987. Progress Report 1987. Chelsea, MI: SEVA Foundation. GVERI Resources Collection Box No. ORG-14. Govindappa Venkataswamy Eye Research Institute, Aravind Eye Care System, Madurai.Google Scholar
  71. ———. 1998. “An Evolving Vision of Service, 1978–1998.” GVERI Resources Collection Box No. ORG-14. Govindappa Venkataswamy Eye Research Institute, Aravind Eye Care System, Madurai.Google Scholar
  72. ———. 2003. “SEVA’s Silver Anniversary Concert.” GVERI Resources Collection Box No. ORG-14. Govindappa Venkataswamy Eye Research Institute, Aravind Eye Care System, Madurai.Google Scholar
  73. Siddiqi, Javed. 1995. “Part II Attempts to Build a Decentralized Universal Health Organization.” In World Health and World Politics: The World Health Organization and the UN System, 53–122. University of South Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  74. Smith, Henry. 1910. The Treatment of Cataract. Calcutta, India: Thacker, Spink & Co. The Foundation of the American Academy of Ophthalmology Museum of Vision & Ophthalmic Heritage, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  75. The International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness, and John Wilson, eds. 1980. World Blindness and Its Prevention: Volume 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  76. The International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness, and Carl Kupfer, eds. 1988. World Blindness And Its Prevention: Volume 3. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  77. United Kingdom, and Nepal. 1923. “Treaty between the United Kingdom and Nepal Together with Note Respecting the Importation of Arms and Ammunition into Nepal.” 31. Treaty Series. London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office. http://treaties.fco.gov.uk/treaties/treatyrecord.htm?tid=11170&pg=2.
  78. UNO Stamps. 2008. “World Health Day 1976–Foresight Prevents Blindness.” UNO Stamps, February 6. Retrieved March 17, 2012. http://www.unostamps.nl/subject_world_health_day_1976.htm.
  79. Venkataswamy, Govindappa. 1972. “Public Health Ophthalmology within the Nations. India.” Israel Journal of Medical Sciences 8 (8): 1066–68.Google Scholar
  80. ———. 1992. “Spiritual Consciousness and Healing: An Interview with Govindappa Venkataswamy.” By Missy Daniel. Second Opinion 18 (1): 68–81.Google Scholar
  81. von der Heide, Susanne. 2012. “Linking Routes from the Silk Road through Nepal–The Ancient Passage through Mustang and Its Importance as a Buddhist Cultural Landscape.” In International Association of Silk Road Universities 2nd International Conference Archi-Cultural Translations through the Silk Road, 613: 353–359. Nishinomiya, Japan: Mukogawa Women’s University. http://www.mukogawa-u.ac.jp/~iasu2012/proceedings.html.
  82. WHA, 1. 1948. First World Health Assembly, Geneva 24 June–24 July 1948: Plenary Meetings: Verbatim Records: Main Committees: Summary of Resolutions and Decisions. Geneva: World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/85592.
  83. WHA, 22. 1969. “Draft Second Report of the Committee on Programme and Budget.” A22/P&B/21. WHA22. Geneva: World Health Organization. http://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/144305.
  84. WHA, 25. 1972. Twenty-Fifth World Health Assembly, Geneva, 9–26 May 1972: Part I: Resolutions and Decisions: Annexes. Geneva: World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/85850.
  85. WHA, 25 and M. G. Candau. 1972. “Provisional agenda item 2.6 Prevention of Blindness: Report by the Director-General.” A25/10. WHA25. Geneva: World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/145459.
  86. WHA, 26. 1973. “Dr. M. G. Candau, Director-General Emeritus.” WHA26. Geneva: World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/92035.
  87. WHA, 28. 1975. Twenty-Eighth World Health Assembly, Geneva, 13–30 May 1975: Part I: Resolutions and Decisions: Annexes. Geneva: World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/86022.
  88. WHA, 31. 1978. Thirty-First World Health Assembly, Geneva, 8–24 May 1978: Part I: Resolutions and Decisions: Annexes. Geneva: World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/86043.
  89. WHO. 1973. “The Prevention of Blindness: Report of a WHO Study Group.” 518. World Health Organization Technical Report Series. Geneva: World Health Organization. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/38222/1/WHO_TRS_518_eng.pdf.
  90. ———. 2009. “WHO Prevention of Avoidable Blindness and Visual Impairment.” Retrieved April 30, 2009. http://www.who.int/blindness/en/.
  91. ———. 2013. Universal Eye Health: A Global Action Plan 2014–2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. http://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/105937.
  92. ———. 2016. “Prevention of Blindness and Visual Impairment Historical Perspective.” WHO | Historical Perspective. http://www.who.int/blindness/history/en/.
  93. WHO and Halfdan Mahler. 1974. The Work of WHO, 1973: Annual Report of the Director-General to the World Health Assembly and to the United Nations. OFFICIAL RECORDS OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION 213. Geneva: World Health Organization. http://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/85868.
  94. ———. 1975. The Work of WHO, 1974: Annual Report of the Director-General to the World Health Assembly and to the United Nations. OFFICIAL RECORDS OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION 221. Geneva: World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/85882.
  95. ———. 1976. The Work of WHO, 1975: Annual Report of the Director-General to the World Health Assembly and to the United Nations. OFFICIAL RECORDS OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION 229. Geneva: World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/86025.
  96. ———. 1978. The Work of WHO, 1976–1977: Annual Report of the Director-General to the World Health Assembly and to the United Nations. OFFICIAL RECORDS OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION 243. Geneva: World Health Organization. http://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/86039.
  97. World Health Organization Office of External Coordination. 1990. “Directory of Nongovernmental Organizations in Official Relations with the World Health Organization.” Geneva: World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/59634.
  98. WHO and Socrates Litsios. 2008. THE THIRD TEN YEARS OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION: 1968–1977. Geneva: World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/global_health_histories/who-3rd10years.pdf.
  99. WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia. 1975. “25th Anniversary of the WHO Regional Organization for South-East Asia, 1948–1973.” New Delhi, India: World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia. http://apps.searo.who.int/pds/ShowDetails.asp?Code=B3768.
  100. ———. 1978. “WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia Proposed Programme Budget for 1980–1981.” SEA/RC31/3. Regional Committee Meeting 31 Ulan Bator, 22–28 August 1978. Geneva: World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/129873.
  101. WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia, Twenty-Sixth Session. 1973. “Report and Minutes of the Twenty-Sixth Session of the WHO Regional Committee for South-East Asia, New Delhi, 18–24 September, 1973.” New Delhi, India: World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia.Google Scholar
  102. WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia, Twenty-Eighth Session. 1975. “Report and Minutes of the Twenty-Eighth Session of the WHO Regional Committee for South-East Asia, New Delhi, 25–30 August, 1975.” New Delhi, India: World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia.Google Scholar
  103. Willard, Nedd, Poppy Willard, and R. Pararajasegaram. 2010. “Dr. Nicole Grasset A Retrospective.” SEVA Foundation. Retrieved February 1, 2013. http://www.seva.org/site/DocServer/Dr_Nicole_Grasset_Retrospective.pdf?docID=1141.
  104. Wilson, John. 1987. “Clearing the Cataract Backlog.” The British Journal of Ophthalmology 71 (2): 158–160.Google Scholar
  105. ———. 1988. “Preventing Blindness, A Retrospective.” In World Blindness and Its Prevention: Volume 3, edited By the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness and Carl Kupfer. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  106. Wingfield, Nick. 2013. “A Gift From Steve Jobs Returns Home.” New York Times. Bits Blog. November 20. http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/11/20/a-gift-from-steve-jobs-returns-home/.
  107. World Bank. 2002. “India—Cataract Blindness Control Project.” 25232. Washington, DC: The World Bank. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/238341468752788935/India-Cataract-Blindness-Control-Project.
  108. Worthington, Richard. 1993. “Introduction: Science and Technology as a Global System.” Science, Technology, & Human Values 18 (2): 176–85.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Logan Williams Consultancy Services, LLCCumberlandUSA

Personalised recommendations