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The Symptoms and Causes of Tracheobronchial Diseases

  • Guojun Zhang
  • Xinwei Han
  • Songyun Ouyang
  • Tengfei Li
Chapter

Abstract

In medicine, it is essential to first establish the diagnosis, and then the choice of treatment follows. If the diagnosis is specific, the treatment is clear. The disease diagnosis relies on information from a complete medical history, detailed physical examination (observing, touching, knocking, listening), indispensable laboratory tests, special equipment, and specialized procedures, such as endoscopy and imaging.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guojun Zhang
    • 1
  • Xinwei Han
    • 2
  • Songyun Ouyang
    • 1
  • Tengfei Li
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Respiratory MedicineThe First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou UniversityZhengzhouChina
  2. 2.Department of Interventional RadiologyThe First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou UniversityZhengzhouChina

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