Energy Supply Chains and the Maritime Domain

Part of the Lecture Notes in Energy book series (LNEN, volume 68)


The physical linkages between the sources of energy and the consumers are collectively referred to as the energy supply chain. Energy supply chains for fossil fuels have several elements. Coal, crude oil and natural gas have to be transported over long distances, and these supply chains are intricately linked with the maritime domain. This chapter presents various aspects of energy supply chains for coal, crude oil and natural gas and how these energy sources reach the consumer. Transportation of coal, oil and gas from one country to another is possible over intercontinental distances by ships and hence ports are important nodes in the maritime energy supply chain. Ports require specialized infrastructure for handling coal, oil and LNG, and port infrastructure for energy transportation is essential for enabling energy trade. Various facilities which are required for transporting and handling coal, oil and LNG in ports are discussed. The importance of integrated port planning, multimodal connectivity, transshipment and inland waterway connectivity for increasing the reach and efficiency of the energy supply chains is also highlighted.


Energy supply chain Port infrastructure 


  1. BP (2017) BP statistical review of world energy 2017. British Petroleum, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Department of Energy (2018a) Strategic petroleum reserve inventory 2005 [online]. Available at Accessed 24 Feb 2018
  3. Department of Energy (2018b) Natural gas infrastructure [online]. Available at Accessed 10 Feb 2018
  4. EIA (2016) U.S. Energy Information Administration, Energy Department. Offshore production nearly 30% of global crude oil output in 2015 [online]. Available at Accessed 14 Feb 2018
  5. EIA (2017) U.S. Energy Information Administration. Underground natural gas working storage capacity [online]. Available at Accessed 24 Feb 2018
  6. EIA (2018) U.S. Energy Information Administration. EIA—natural gas pipeline network—transporting natural gas in the United States [online]. Available at Accessed 04 Feb 2018
  7. Hydrocarbon Processing (2018) Business trends: the future of LNG—Part 1 [online]. Available at Accessed 24 Feb 2018
  8. Hydrocarbons Technology (2018) Qatar leads globally in LNG liquefaction capacity—hydrocarbons technology [online]. Available at Accessed 24 Feb 2018
  9. IQPC Corporate (2018) The world’s top 10 LNG terminals [online]. Available at Accessed 15 Feb 2018
  10. OECD/International Energy Agency (IEA) (2018) Member countries [online]. Available at Accessed 15 Feb 2018
  11. Office of Fossil Energy (2018) Strategic petroleum reserve | department of energy [online]. Available at Accessed 15 Feb 2018
  12. Oil Sands Magazine (2018) How much oil is being stockpiled around the world? No one really knows, but here’s our best guess [online]. Available at Accessed 17 Feb 2018
  13. Petronas (2018) PETRONAS FLNG [online]. Available at Accessed 24 Mar 2018
  14. (2018) Floating LNG [online]. Available at Accessed 24 Feb 2018
  15. United Nations (2011) White paper on efficient and sustainable inland water transport in Europe. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. United Nations Conference on a Convention on International Multimodal Transport (1981) United Nations conference on a convention on international multimodal transport: held at Geneva from 12 to 30 November 1979 (first part of the session) and from 8 to 24 May 1980 (resumed session). United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Environmental Sciences (ISE)University of GenevaGenevaSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations