• Gyu Young Jeong


The most reliable hypothesis for the occurrence of hemorrhoids is considered to be the sliding theory that the hemorrhoids occur due to having supporting muscular fiber tissue of hemorrhoidal plexus get worse or loss of elasticity from the tearing. Internal hemorrhoids can be classified into 1 to 4 grades by the degree of prolapse. The most common symptoms of patients with hemorrhoids are bleeding and prolapse. Treatment of hemorrhoids is based on the degree of prolapse, severity of symptom, and appearance of the hemorrhoids. The key factors of conservative treatment for hemorrhoids are the dietary habits and lifestyle change. In order to improve symptoms of hemorrhoids, there are many commercial topical agents such as cream, lotion, suppository, and local anesthesia. One of the commonly used invasive procedures is rubber band ligation. Excisional hemorrhoidectomy is an outstanding treatment for 3- to 4-degree hemorrhoids compared to the nonoperative treatment. Postoperative pain is one of the main reasons patients hesitate to take surgery of the hemorrhoids. Surgeon should be also aware of the other postoperative complications and, especially, the possibility of inflammatory changes in the operated area if there is urinary retention or fever.


Hemorrhoids Sliding theory Classification Stapled hemorrhoidectomy 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gyu Young Jeong
    • 1
  1. 1.Colorectal Division, Department of SurgeryHansol HospitalSeoulSouth Korea

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