Determination of Connectivity Using Minimum Connected Dominating Set Based on the Measure of Eigen Centrality in a Heterogeneous IoT Network

  • Partha Sarathi BanerjeeEmail author
  • Satyendra Nath Mandal
  • Biswajit Maiti
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 836)


Ubiquitous connectivity, irrespective of technology, is one of the main challenges that have to be conquered to make the things speak among themselves and to make a successful IoT (Internet of Things) framework. The problem of IoT, at present, lies in the intercommunication among devices having different kinds of connection interface. As a result, percolation of message is blocked even between two neighbors of same kind within close proximity because of the presence of large number of other devices having mismatched communication interface in the neighborhood. Hence, a seemingly connected network may become disconnected.

In this paper, effort has been made to overcome the communication bottleneck that may arise due to co-located sensing and/or actuating nodes with different network interfaces. To investigate the problem mathematically, the network is taken as a graph consisting of randomly deployed nodes of different interface types. Minimum Connected Dominating Set (MCDS) algorithm is used to find out the optimal positions of nodes where Special-Purpose-Multiple-Interface nodes (SPMIN) capable to communicate with different types of connection interfaces are to be placed. Extensive simulation of this arrangement has been done and is found to improve the path finding probability, packet-delivery-ratio and reliability in the network.


Internet of Things (IoT) Heterogeneous network Ubiquitous connectivity Minimum connected dominating set Multiple-interface nodes 



The authors would like to thank to the Department of Science & Technology, Government of West Bengal (Memo No.-20(Sanc.)/ST/P/S&T/Misc-9/2014 dated 16/05/2017) for funding this research work.


  1. 1.
    Ng, J.K.: Ubiquitous healthcare: healthcare systems and application enabled by mobile and wireless technologies. J. Converg. 3(2), 15–20 (2012)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bandyopadhyay, D., Sen, J.: Internet of things: applications and challenges in technology and standardization. Wirel. Pers. Commun. 58(1), 49–69 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Regina, T.R., Tome, T., Rothenberg, C.E.: Scenario of evolution for a future internet architecture. In: Tronco, T. (ed.) New Network Architectures, pp. 57–77. Springer, Heidelberg (2010). Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sundmaeker, H., Guillemin, P., Friess, P., Woelffle, S.: Vision and challenges for realizing the internet of things. In: Cluster of European Research Projects on the Internet of Things. European Commission (2010)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Augusto, J.C., Callaghan, V., Cook, D., Kameas, A., Satoh, I.: Intelligent environments: a manifesto. Hum.-Centric Comput. Inf. Sci. 3, Article 12 (2013)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Atzori, L., Iera, A., Morabito, G.: The internet of things: a survey. Comput. Netw. 54(15), 2787–2805 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Miorandi, D., et al.: Internet of things: vision, applications and research challenges. Ad Hoc Netw. 10(7), 1497–1516 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shih, C.-S., Wu, G.-F.: Meta-routing over heterogeneous networks in M2M systems. In: Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Research in Adaptive and Convergent Systems. ACM (2014)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    De Poorter, E., Moerman, I., Demeester, P.: Enabling direct connectivity between heterogeneous objects in the internet of things through a network-service-oriented architecture. EURASIP J. Wirel. Commun. Netw. 2011, 61 (2011).
  10. 10.
    Gama, K., Touseau, L., Donsez, D.: Combining heterogeneous service technologies for building an Internet of Things middleware. Comput. Commun. 35(4), 405–417 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Altamimi, A.B., Ramadan, R.A.: Towards internet of things modeling: a gateway approach. Complex Adapt. Syst. Model. 4(1), 25 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li, J., et al.: Connectivity, coverage and placement in wireless sensor networks. Sensors 9(10), 7664–7693 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jung, E., Cho, I., Kang, S.M.: iotSilo: the agent service platform supporting dynamic behavior assembly for resolving the heterogeneity of IoT. Int. J. Distrib. Sensor Netw. 10(1), 608972 (2014)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Singh, F., Vijeth, J.K., Siva Ram Murthy, C.: Parallel opportunistic routing in IoT networks. In: 2016 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC) (2016)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Capone, A., Cesana, M., De Donno, D., Filippini, I.: Optimal placement of multiple interconnected gateways in heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. In: Fratta, L., Schulzrinne, H., Takahashi, Y., Spaniol, O. (eds.) NETWORKING 2009. LNCS, vol. 5550, pp. 442–455. Springer, Heidelberg (2009). Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rehena, Z., et al.: Multiple sink placement in partitioned wireless sensor networks. Int. J. Next-Gen. Comput. 6(2), 79–95 (2015)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Penumalli, C., Palanichamy, Y.: An optimal CDS construction algorithm with activity scheduling in ad hoc networks. Sci. World J. 2015, Article ID 842346, 12 p. (2015).
  18. 18.
    Sheu, J.-P., Lin, H.-F.: Probabilistic coverage preserving protocol with energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks. In: 2007 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC 2007 (2007)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Penrose, M.D.: Random Geometric Graphs. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Alvarez-Socorro, A., Herrera-Almarza, G., Gonzalez-Diaz, L.: Eigencentrality based on dissimilarity measures reveals central nodes in complex networks. Sci. Rep. 5. (2015).
  21. 21.
    Scholartica Channel: Connected Dominating Sets and its Applications: Part 2 - Greedy Algorithm, online video clip, YouTube, 17 September 2015, Web 2 September 2017Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Partha Sarathi Banerjee
    • 1
    Email author
  • Satyendra Nath Mandal
    • 1
  • Biswajit Maiti
    • 2
  1. 1.Kalyani Government Engineering CollegeKalyaniIndia
  2. 2.Government General Degree College KhargapurKhargapurIndia

Personalised recommendations