Skip to main content

Point-to-Point Channel Modelling Within Offshore Wind Farms

  • 1443 Accesses

Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC,volume 797)


From the perspective of several measurement campaigns in the offshore environment, it has been reported that the sea surface reflections are the main source of fading. We present a novel solution to this problem, by investigating the analytical implications of the propagation model which best fits the offshore channel characteristics. We also present a novel and yet simple implementation of receiver diversity which can mitigate the fading caused by sea surface reflections and ensure that the link is always steady even under extreme turbulent conditions.


  • Maritime communications
  • Sea surface reflections
  • Channel modelling
  • Long-range WLAN
  • Spatial diversity

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-981-13-1165-9_18
  • Chapter length: 10 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
USD   229.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-981-13-1165-9
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   299.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5


  1. Agarwal D, Kishor N (2014) Network lifetime enhanced tri-level clustering and routing protocol for monitoring of offshore wind farms. IET Wirel Sens Syst 4(2):69–79

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  2. Reyes-Guerrero JC et al (2012) Measuring and estimating the propagation path loss and shadowing effects for marine wireless sensor networks at 5.8 GHZ. In: 20th telecommunications forum TELFOR 2012, pp 323–326

    Google Scholar 

  3. ITU (1986) Reflection from the surface of the Earth. ITU REP. 1008-1. ITU, pp 75–82

    Google Scholar 

  4. Macmillan A et al (2010) Slow frequency Hopping for mitigating tidal fading on rural long distance over-water wireless links. INFOCOM IEEE conference on computer communications workshops. San Diego, USA, pp 1–5

    Google Scholar 

  5. Gordon AL et al (2018) Tide Physics URL Online Accessed 7th Jan 2017

  6. Doong D, Wu L (2010) Searching for freak waves from in-situ buoy measurements. In: IEEE conferences oceans 2010 IEEE, Sydney, pp 1–6.

  7. Lee YH, Meng YS (2015) Key considerations in the modeling of tropical maritime microwave attenuations. Int J Antennas Propag, Article ID 246793:1–7

    Google Scholar 

  8. Salehinejad H et al (2012) PPM-UWB channel modeling for SCADA communications. In: Offshore wind farms Iranian conference on smart grids, pp 1–6

    Google Scholar 

  9. Anaya-Lara O et al (2006) Communications requirements and technology for wind farm operation and maintenance. In: First international conference on industrial and information systems, pp 173–178

    Google Scholar 

  10. Hussain S, Kim Y (2015) Simulation studies of resilient communication network architecture for monitoring and control wind power farms. In: International conference on advanced communication technology (ICACT), pp 653–658

    Google Scholar 

  11. Hussain S, Kim Y (2016) Fault resilient communication network architecture for monitoring and control of wind power farms. In: 18th international conference on advanced communication technology (ICACT), pp 685–692

    Google Scholar 

  12. Garroppo RG et al (2009) Experimental and simulation study of a WiMAX system in the sea port scenario. In: Proceedings of IEEE international conference on communications, pp 1–5

    Google Scholar 

  13. Reyes-Guerrero JC et al (2011) Buoy-to-ship experimental measurements over sea at 5.8 GHz near urban environments. In: Proceedings of IEEE 11th mediterranean microwave symposium (MMS), pp 320–324

    Google Scholar 

  14. Goldsmith A (2005) Path loss and shadowing. Cambridge University Press, Wireless communications. Cambridge, pp 30–31

    Google Scholar 

  15. Ferrand P, Yang S (2016) Blind precoding in line-of-sight MIMO channels. In: 2016 IEEE 17th international workshop on signal processing advances in wireless communications (SPAWC), pp 1–5

    Google Scholar 

  16. Garcia-Lopez J, Ferrandiz J, Selga J (1982) Design of hybrid diversity on overwater paths. IET J Mag Electron Lett 18(10):420–422

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  17. Sarris I, Nix A (2007) Design and performance assessment of high-capacity MIMO architectures in the presence of a line-of-sight component. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 56(4):2194–2202

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  18. Alamouti S (1998) A simple transmit diversity technique for wireless communications. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 1451–1458

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Joseph Mbogo , Xiao-Hong Peng or Zuoyin Tang .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2019 Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

About this paper

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Mbogo, J., Peng, XH., Tang, Z. (2019). Point-to-Point Channel Modelling Within Offshore Wind Farms. In: Yang, XS., Sherratt, S., Dey, N., Joshi, A. (eds) Third International Congress on Information and Communication Technology. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 797. Springer, Singapore.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Singapore

  • Print ISBN: 978-981-13-1164-2

  • Online ISBN: 978-981-13-1165-9

  • eBook Packages: EngineeringEngineering (R0)