A Comparative Study of Mindfulness Between Meditators and Non-meditators

  • Mukesh AgarwalEmail author
  • Chitra KhandelwalEmail author
  • Aakanksha DesaiEmail author
  • Vinay Kumar ChandnaEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 797)


Meditation and mindfulness are now getting into trend contributing as the proposed benefactor in various diseases. It has been generally recommended that meditation aids in subsidizing stress levels, improving performance and relationships at home and at workplace apart from any therapeutic benefit. Rajyoga Meditation is one such meditation which is recently being explored for its holistic well-being of the individual. So, there was a need to confirm the significant differences which are attained through the regular practice of meditation. This study is on the comparative analysis between the group of meditators and non-meditators highlights the benefit of meditation. The comparison has been carried out on famous five facets of mindfulness using the FFMQ over demographically similar randomly sampled subjects. Results have a clear indication that meditators have a significant difference in terms of observation (p < 0.0098) and non-reactivity (p < 0.0092) which are the need of the hour in the demanding work scenarios. It has been concluded that regular practice of meditation may improve these facets of mindfulness. It has also been found that meditators were more judging than non-meditators whose reasons could be found in future research.


Mindfulness Rajyoga Meditation FFMQ 



We extend our gratitude to Department of Science and Technology—Cognitive Science Research Initiative, Government of India, for providing us financial support for carrying out this research. We are also thankful to Dr. Smita Jain for helping us in statistical analysis of this study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards:

Funding: This study was funded by Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, (SR/CSRI/131/2012).

Conflict of Interest: Mukesh Agarwal declares that he has no conflict of interest. Chitra Khandelwal declares that she has no conflict of interest. Aakanksha Desai declares that she has no conflict of interest. Vinay Kumar Chandna declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval: All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the JECRC Ethics Committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent: Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


  1. 1.
    Diekman AJ (1966) Experimental meditation. J Nerv Ment Dis 136:329–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lutz A et al (2008) Attention regulation and monitoring in meditation. Trends cogn Sci 12(4):163–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Travis F, Shear J (2010) Focused attention, open monitoring and automatic self-transcending: categories to organize meditations from Vedic, Buddhist and Chinese traditions. Conscious Cogn 19(4):1110–1118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kabat-Zinn Jon (1982) An outpatient program in behavioral medicine for chronic pain patients based on the practice of mindfulness meditation: theoretical considerations and preliminary results. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 4(1):33–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bishop SR, Lau M, Shaipiro S, Carlson L, Anderson ND, Carmody J, Devins G (2004) Mindfulness: a proposed operational definition. Clin Psychol Sci Pract 11:230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hirst IS (2003) Perspectives of mindfulness. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs 10(3):359–366MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Delmonte MM (1990) Meditation and change: Mindfulness versus repression. Aust J Clin Hypnotherapy Hypn 11(2):57–63Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    LaBerge D (1995) Attentional processing: the brain’s art of mindfulness. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Neff Kristin D (2003) The development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self Identity 2(3):223–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Baer RA et al (2006) Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment 13(1): 27–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baer RA, Samuel DB, Lykins EL (2010) Differential item functioning on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire is minimal in demographically matched meditators and nonmeditators. Assessment 18(1):3–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jaipur Engineering College & Research CentreJaipurIndia

Personalised recommendations