Extraction and Characterization of Phytochemicals

  • Aditi Khare
  • Gauransh Jain
  • Vibha RaniEmail author


Recent advances in phytochemical uses have shown its activity as protective role against a variety of diseases, which marks its importance in developing functional food and even in nutraceuticals. Extraction from plant materials is a crucial step to the food processing industries. The whole process revolves around eliminating the less concerned part to maximize benefits out of herbs. The main aim of standardizing the extraction procedures is to eliminate unwanted material and to obtain the most enriched bioactive portion of the herbs, with maximal therapeutic potential using different solvent systems. Recent advances have developed a wide range of technologies in extraction of active components and other aromatic essential oils from plants and herbs having a known therapeutic value. Adoption of a certain procedure depends upon the yield and economic feasibility of the process concerned with the plant. This chapter gives a complete insight into the various available methods for phytochemical extraction, their purification, and finally its characterization.


Phytochemicals Functional food Extraction HPLC OPLC HPTLC Chromatography NMR MALDI-TOF 


  1. 1.
    Aladejimokun A, Daramola K, Osabiya O, Arije O (2017) Comparative study of phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activities of Acalypha wilkesiana and Acalypha godseffiana extracts. J Adv Microbiol 4(1):1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Babar M (2013) Antiviral drug therapy- exploiting medicinal plants. J Antivir Antiretrovir 05(02)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Colombo M (2012) Herbal preparations and homemade herbal teas for children. Forum Nutr 11(1):19–24Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Di Fabio G, Romanucci V, Zarrelli M, Giordano M, Zarrelli A (2013) C-4 gem-dimethylated oleanes of Gymnema sylvestre and their pharmacological activities. Molecules 18(12):14892–14919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Djouonzo P, Ladoh-Yemeda C, Tchinda A, Mbafor J (2016) Antiradical activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of extracts from the stem bark of Pterocarpus erinaceus. Schol Acad J Biosci 4(6)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Duodu K (2014) Effects of processing on phenolic phytochemicals in cereals and legumes. Cereal Foods World 59(2):64–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    El-Khateeb A, Azzaz N, Mahmoud H (2014) Phytochemical constituents, hypoglycemic and haematological effects of methanolic Acalypha wilkesiana leave extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Eur J Chem 5(3):430–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ganjhu R, Mudgal P, Maity H, Dowarha D, Devadiga S, Nag S, Arun kumar G (2015) Herbal plants and plant preparations as remedial approach for viral diseases. Virus Dis 26(4):225–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Geerkens C, Matejka A, Carle R, Schweiggert R (2015) Development and validation of an HPLC method for the determination of alk(en)ylresorcinols using rapid ultrasound-assisted extraction of mango peels and rye grains. Food Chem 169:261–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Giambanelli E, Ferioli F, Koçaoglu B, Jorjadze M, Alexieva I, Darbinyan N, D’Antuono L (2013) A comparative study of bioactive compounds in primitive wheat populations from Italy, Turkey, Georgia, Bulgaria and Armenia. J Sci Food Agric 93(14):3490–3501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hole A, Grimmer S, Jensen M, Sahlstrøm S (2012) Synergistic and suppressive effects of dietary phenolic acids and other phytochemicals from cereal extract on nuclear factor kappa B activity. Food Chem 133(3):969–977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kumar G, Krishna A (2013) Studies on the nutraceuticals composition of wheat derived oils wheat bran oil and wheat germ oil. J Food Sci Technol 52(2):1145–1151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lin L, Chen T, Lin S, Chung C, Lin T, Wang G, Anderson R, Lin C, Richardson C (2013) Broad-spectrum antiviral activity of chebulagic acid and punicalagin against viruses that use glycosaminoglycans for entry. BMC Microbiol 13(1):187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mithat Kara G (2016) Some chemical and physical properties, fatty acid composition and bioactive compounds of wheat germ oils extracted from different wheat cultivars. Tarım Bilim Derg 22(3):433–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sen S, Chakraborty R (2015) Toward the integration and advancement of herbal medicine: a focus on traditional Indian medicine. Bot: Targets Ther:33Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Singh I, Rani P, Kumar P (2017) Microwave assisted grafting of gums and extraction of natural materials. Mini-Rev Med Chem 17:1573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tiwari P, Mishra B, Sangwan N (2014) Phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Gymnemasylvestre: an important medicinal plant. Biomed Res Int 2014:1–18Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tunchaiyaphum S, Eshtiaghi M, Yoswathana N (2013) Extraction of bioactive compounds from mango peels using green technology. Int J Chem Eng Appl:194–198Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Vats S, Kamal R (2016) Identification of flavonoids from plant parts and callus culture of Gymnema sylvestre R. Br.: an antidiabetic plant. Curr Bioact Compd 12(4):264–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Asma E, Naiima B, Fethia H (2015) Antifungal activity of Citharexylum quadrangulare Jacq. Extracts against phytopathogenic fungi. Afr J Microbiol Res 9(29):1764–1769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Addie R, Balluff B, Bovée J, Morreau H, McDonnell L (2015) Current state and future challenges of mass spectrometry imaging for clinical research. Anal Chem 87(13):6426–6433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cvetanović A, Švarc-Gajić J, Mašković P, Savić S, Nikolić L (2015) Antioxidant and biological activity of chamomile extracts obtained by different techniques: perspective of using superheated water for isolation of biologically active compounds. Ind Crop Prod 65:582–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Eriksson C, Masaki N, Yao I, Hayasaka T, Setou M (2013) MALDI imaging mass spectrometry—a mini review of methods and recent developments. Mass Spectrom 2:S0022–S0022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jamila N, Khairuddean M, Khan S, Khan N (2014) Complete NMR assignments of bioactive rotameric (3 → 8) biflavonoids from the bark of Garcinia hombroniana. Magn Reson Chem 52(7):345–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Maksimovic S, Tadic V, Skala D, Zizovic I (2017) Separation of phytochemicals from Helichrysum italicum: an analysis of different isolation techniques and biological activity of prepared extracts. Phytochemistry 138:9–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Neubert P, Walch A (2013) Current frontiers in clinical research application of MALDI imaging mass spectrometry. Expert Rev Proteomics 10(3):259–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ramak A, Ezatpour B, Talei G (2017) Investigation on chemical composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic properties of essential oil from Dracocephalum kotschyi boiss. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 14(3):209–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rochman J, Siswoyo T, Ratnadewi A (2017) Antioxidant activity study and Α-glucosidase inhibitor phenolic leaf extract Bungur (Lagerstroemia speciosa) from Meru National Park Betiri. J ILMU DASAR 17(1):39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sabine Becker J (2013) Imaging of metals in biological tissue by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS): state of the art and future developments. J Mass Spectrom 48(2):255–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    SaiSaraswathi V, Saravanan D, Santhakumar K (2017) Isolation of quercetin from the methanolic extract of Lagerstroemia speciosa by HPLC technique, its cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells and photocatalytic activity. J Photochem Photobiol B Biol 171:20–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schmitz C, Fritsch L, Fischer R, Schillberg S, Rasche S (2016) Statistical experimental designs for the production of secondary metabolites in plant cell suspension cultures. Biotechnol Lett 38(12):2007–2014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Szydłowska-Czerniak A, Tułodziecka A (2014) Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction procedure to determine antioxidant capacity of rapeseed cultivars. Food Anal Methods 8(3):778–789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wocheslander S, Groß F, Scholz B, Engel K (2017) Quantitation of acyl chain oxidation products formed upon thermo-oxidation of phytosteryl/-stanylOleates and linoleates. J Agric Food Chem 65(11):2435–2442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zhu H, Lu Z, Cai J, Li J, Gao L (2009) Development of a headspace–SPME–GC/MS method to determine volatile organic compounds released from textiles. Polym Test 28(5):521–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tetik S (2016) Mass spectrometry technology for protein biomarker discovery. Imaging J Clin Med Sci 2016:14–16Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyJaypee Institute of Information TechnologyNoidaIndia

Personalised recommendations